Trends In Non Financial Reporting Accounting Essay

Accounting services are known to be the readying and analysis of fiscal information, which is accounted to internal and external users through fiscal statements as an independent statement or an indicant of assurance on the public presentation of an organisation. Assurance ‘s chief intent is to supply a degree of assurance that the information being presented is accurate and dependable ( Main & A ; Hespenheide, 2011 ) . Assurance could be turn toing the truth of specific public presentation indexs, conformity rating on the procedure of the coverage or guaranting the truth and completeness of directions ‘ averments in the study. Assurance services involve measuring the dependability and dependability of fiscal information as the quality of determinations relies upon it.

Relevance is described as the ability of the accounting information which creates difference in the determination devising ( Sharayri & A ; Momani, 2011 ) . On the other manus, dependability assures that accounting information is moderately free from mistake or prejudice and dependably signifies what it claims to stand for ( Johnson, 2005 ) . Devi, Hooper and Davey ( 2004 ) added that dependability symbolizes the constructs of faithful representation, variableness, neutrality and completeness, which form a cardinal component in the proposed conceptual model.

However, confidence perchance would or would non be associated with fiscal information. Regularly, hearers compile and weigh up both fiscal and non-financial information in all stages of an battle. For illustration, SAS No. 56 ( AICPA 1988b ) necessitates the usage of analytical processs in both the planning and concluding reappraisal phases of an audit in add-on to substantive testing ( Jeffrey, Ganesh & A ; Arnold, 2000 ) .

Organizations frequently report non-financial information such as information on concern scheme, corporate administration, internal controls or corporate duty coverage on environmental, economic and societal public presentation with indirect nexus with a fiscal enrollment system ( Admiraal, Nivra & A ; Turksema, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to ICAEW ( 2008 ) , confidence on non-financial information besides includes studies to regulators on affairs such as hazard exposures, pricing policies or conformity with regulative demands and describing on public involvement concerns.

Contrary to the word ‘non-financial ‘ , the nature of non-financial information can be qualitative or quantitative. The information is capable of being expressed in Numberss or figures, as in measures or periods which could be similar to fiscal information, but of a less unvarying nature. Often it is quantifiable and an indirect nexus can be made with a fiscal enrollment system. Conversely, qualitative information is descriptive in nature which by and large does non tie in with by and large accepted frame of mention or standardised units ( Royal NIVRA, Amsterdam, 2010 ) .


In 2009, the Assurance Sustainability Briefing Paper 3 reported by ACCA, AccountAbility and KPMG states that it is increasingly accepted that today ‘s accounting and audit is deteriorating in supplying information on many of the drivers that create concern value, while many concern drivers are finally non-financial, such as the client service and clime alteration. Sing that non-financial issues revolve into progressively important for strategic determination devising and organisational appraisal, it is expected that the demand for confidence on full corporate revelations associating to sustainability, every bit good as confidence associating to public presentation on peculiar issues to be increasing.

Although the planetary tendency is increasing, the usage of external confidence for sustainability or Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) reports varies significantly across parts. This is mostly due to the different phases of adulthood in sustainability coverage and confidence. The pattern was developed in Europe and this part has the most mature sustainability coverage, and as a effect, a strong presence in the confidence market. There are indicants that there will be strong growing in Asia in coming old ages as it has become the 2nd largest part for confidence, and farther growing is predicted. In contrast, in North America where coverage is good established, newsmans are far less likely to include external confidence ( ACCA, AccountAbility & A ; KPMG, 2009 ) .

Hearers ‘ primary focal point has ever been on the audit of historical fiscal information, in which hearer ‘s study frequently provides confidence on fiscal information ( Royal NIVRA, Amsterdam, 2010 ) . However, organisations public presentation is non wholly dependent on past public presentation. Future position based on current public presentations are every bit of import as governors, politicians, accountants and authorities audit offices have become more interested in public presentation informations in budgets and studies.

Figure: Tendencies in non-financial coverage

Beginning: Palenberg, Reinicke W. , and Witte, J. M. ( 2006 ) . Tendencies in non-financial coverage. United Nations Environment Programme, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics ( DTIE ) .

The survey above shows that there have been increasing developments on non-financial coverage patterns and based on a additive theoretical account, it is estimated that about 4,100 companies will be bring forthing non-financial studies in 2020.

There has been much treatment and argument refering the function of confidence services in the hereafter of the scrutinizing profession. Chiefly, the confidence of entity public presentation steps is seen to be the possible countries of growing in confidence services since most of the entities public presentation steps would be of a non-financial nature.

Percy ( 1999 ) proposed there is now a push towards better direction and analysis of operational reappraisals and studies, one time the fiscal statements have satisfied all of the information demands of shareholders and stakeholders. He added by stating there will be demand in these studies for the usage of non-financial public presentation steps to measure the quality of a company and its ability to develop into the hereafter ( Coram, Monroe & A ; Woodliff, 2005 ) .

Both ACCA and ICAEW have realized about the importance of non-financial information and the turning demands for it since non-financial issues can be material. Consequently, the demand to guarantee that they are presented decently is besides turning peculiarly in the countries of corporate duty and public involvement concerns, legal and regulative alterations.

In the twelvemonth 2010, Royal NIVRA in Amsterdam stressed that users in the populace sector in peculiar are more concerned in non-financial information, since the information reflects the consequences and the effects of policy. The dependability and relevancy of this information are hence highly of import. Hearers should hold sufficient cognition of organisations and besides their accounting and control systems to let them to play a important portion in this country.

Despite the fact that Assurance has acknowledged the importance of non-financial information towards the users of information, hearers have non placed as much consideration as they should hold on non-financial information, as stated by Bell et Al. ( as cited in Jeffrey, Ganesh & A ; Arnold, 2000 ) .


Subjective grounds notes the importance of non-financial information as discussed in the anterior instances, which held that the hearer would hold detected misstatements if equal consideration had been given to the client ‘s concern and industry tendencies. ( e.g. , Lincoln Savings & A ; Loan [ Felix et Al. 1996 ] and Crazy Eddie, Inc. [ Knapp, 1996 ] ) .

Similarly, Asare and Davidson ( 1995 ) agreed that there is a haste for farther research on the effects of non-financial information, such as the client ‘s industry and macroeconomic conditions on audit judgements. In recent times, audit houses have every bit good acknowledged the demand to non-financial information in the audit procedure. In position of that, houses have worked together with the industry specialties with the belief that this will advance greater cognition of client concern conditions, therefore heightening the effectivity and efficiency of their audit work ( Jeffrey, Ganesh, & A ; Arnold, 2000 ) . This shows how relevant our survey on this assignment subject is to the real-life state of affairss.

Our chief aims of the survey are to better our apprehension of the factors that determine companies ‘ revelation on non-financial statements and to find the extent to which confidence affects the truth and scattering of non-financial information coverage. Besides, the survey aims to supply a wider understanding on the function of confidence and besides the mechanism on how it could impact the coverage of an organisation. This is in relation from the position of accounting patterns ; as accounting pupils, we can better our apprehension towards both old and current accounting patterns relevant to non-financial information coverage among the houses and companies in general.

With respects to the policy position, our research has taught us about the jobs that come with non-financial information coverage, such as the insufficiency of criterions and policies to better the relevancy and dependability of non-financial information reported by companies. There are other challenges relevant to our assignment subject, and we would discourse farther about this in our chief treatment.

On broad-spectrum, this survey besides allows pupils to appreciate the cognition on this field as it is portion of our capable demand. Since our capable class emphasiss on the significance for us pupils to broaden our cognition on the accounting field and its development throughout the old ages, it is good for us to execute a research on the confidence ‘s functions in bettering the quality of non-financial coverage with respects to the teaching method position. This research would enable us pupils to derive a better apprehension on how the perceptual experience of bookmans, academicians and professional organic structures on this issue has changed throughout the old ages.


Throughout the procedure of executing our research, we have read and analysed 18 diaries, which have provided us much information related to our subject of treatment:

As all of us have known, confidence serviceA is an independent professional service with the purpose to better the information so that determination shapers can do more informed and better determinations. Non-assurance services differ fromA confidence services ; accounting and clerking services, revenue enhancement services, and direction consulting services autumn outside the range of confidence services.

Established in 1995, answerability has developed in the non-financial coverage confidence country. Assurance criterions have been developed, and illustration is the “ AA1000 Assurance Standard ” ( AA1000AS ) , which was issued in March 2003. Developed market economic systems such as Australia, and the US, concentrated on confidence of fiscal studies, which has been mandated by jurisprudence. Assurance serves as a utile mechanism to guarantee the credibleness of disclosed information, in that it reduces the degree of noise contained in the disclosed information and facilitates greater user assurance ( Simnett, Vanstraelen & A ; Wai, 2006 ) . It consequences in more appropriate resource allotment determinations by the information users, peculiarly those in the populace sector.

There are two chief groups of confidence suppliers, which are specialised non-accounting advisers and comptrollers. As a adviser, he or she would supply the organizationA to better the organisation ‘s public presentation, develop the accomplishments of employees, implement sophisticated engineering, develop direction schemes, or better operational services. On the other manus, comptrollers perform accounting maps such as audits or fiscal statement analysis. These confidence services provide independent and professional sentiments that would assist to cut down the information hazard that comes from wrong and inaccurate information.

An assurer ‘s experience can be really utile when executing confidence battles on non-i¬?nancial information. When assurers provide external confidence study, they should see the intent of supplying the study. This is to guarantee that they are able to understand the demands of the users of the non-i¬?nancial information. Acerate leaf to state, assurers or hearers need to be clear about what information they need to describe on and why it is needed. They should clearly pass on their considerations in their study to avoid the formation of different outlooks from different stakeholders.

External confidence provides a sensible confidence that the non-i¬?nancial information provided to the stakeholders is dependable. However, we need to bear in head that the confidence provided by assurers is merely sensible ; the confidence is non an absolute warrant. Assurers guarantee that the non-financial information reported by the direction follows the strict ethical criterions, dei¬?ned model and criterions that cover the whole confidence battle ( ICAEW, 2008 ) . Absence of established auditing criterions reduces answerability to the external audiences and stakeholder groups.

There are certain international auditing criterions in relation to the audit of non-financial information. ISAE 3000 provides compulsory counsel for professional comptrollers in executing non-financial confidence battles. The focal point of ISAE 3000 is non specific to a type of non- fiscal confidence battle. It is wide in order to suit the built-in complexnesss of assorted capable affairs, standards and grounds in non-financial information confidence battles. Another scrutinizing criterion is AA1000AS, which was the first internationally published sustainability confidence criterion in 2003. The most recent alteration of this criterion was in the twelvemonth 2008.

These two criterions revolve around the rules of materiality, reactivity, and the implicit in foundation rule of inclusivity. ISAE 3000 focuses on the confidence processs, whereas AA1000AS emphasizes the quality of the coverage procedure. The usage of both criterions on a sustainability confidence battle therefore has the possible to present an enhanced merchandise or heightening dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage ( ACCA, AccountAbility & A ; KPMG, 2009 ) .

Based on our research performed on the article published by ACCA, AccountAbility & A ; KMPG ( 2009 ) , it is really of import for an assurer to guarantee that the sustainability confidence provided to the users is dependable and relevant to the user ‘s demands. Since this confidence given by the hearer is to convert the stakeholders that the information provided by the administration is believable, dependable and relevant, assurers should supply sufficient grounds that all the right things are included in the study. The study should besides hold all the major issues that are relevant to the stakeholders. Apart from that, the informations provided should be dependable and the claims made by the direction are non overdone. Modern assurers or hearers should besides recognize the traditional confidence constructions and patterns which are progressively being challenged by non-financial issues, as these issues are going progressively of import for strategic determination devising and organisational rating in this modern epoch.

Assurers should be competent plenty to understand the relationship between fiscal confidence and non-financial confidence within their auditing patterns. As assurers, they need to track on their ethical criterions, defined model and criterions, which cover their independency and the full confidence battle. This can heighten the dependability of the non-financial coverage. Other than possessing the necessary relevant accomplishments, assurers should hold the cognition of societal, environmental and sustainability issues. Harmonizing to ACCA and ICAEW, assurers should besides be experienced plenty to transport out confidence battles by following the professional criterions, following with CDP ( Continuing Professional Development ) or preparation demands, and understanding the internal quality control procedures in administrations of many industries.

Based on our research done on the treatment paper written by Royal NIVRA in the twelvemonth 2010, when an assurer provides the confidence services, he or she must guarantee that the services provided are aligned with the rules of answerability. There are four basic rules which are similar for both the fiscal and the non-financial information. They are reliability ( complete, accurate, impersonal and verifiable ) , relevancy ( materiality, focal point and seasonableness ) , comparison ( consistence, both continuously and at the same time ) and comprehensibility ( transparence, classified, presented clearly and briefly ) .

A really utile differentiation between confidence and non-assurance that an assurer does non merely play the function of supplier ; he or she besides acts as an adviser and a newsman. Bing a supplier means supplying on the readying procedure for the audited information. The hearer studies in the signifier of an confidence study, which may incorporate one or more decisions. The degree of confidence can be limited or sensible, and this study could be for internal or external usage. The Code of Ethics, the International Framework and ISAE 3000 ( Assurance Engagements other than Audited accounts or Reviews of Historical Financial Information ) can be applied here.

As an adviser, an hearer or assurer gives advice on the development and execution of a client company ‘s systems, such as an information system. There are no specific criterions for the hearer in relevancy to supplying advice ; merely the Code of Ethics of IFAC ( International Federation of Accountants ) applies here. Taking the function of newsmans, an assurer studies on the factual findings on the readying procedure for the information, without giving any sentiment or confidence. Users of the hearer ‘s study demand to measure the processs and findings reported by the hearer based on their ain opinion and so pull their ain decisions from the hearer ‘s work. The Code of Ethics and ISRS 4400 ( Battles to Perform Agreed-upon Procedures Regarding Financial Information ) are applied here.

A company that wants to supply relevant and dependable non-financial information to its users demands to hold a good non-financial information system. Harmonizing to NIVRA in Amsterdam ( 2010 ) , an hearer can be appointed by the preparer of the non-financial information to heighten the grade of assurance of the intended users in the non-financial information. An hearer fulfils the function of the independent professional who examines the quality of the reported information by the preparer on the behalf of the users.

Independent external confidence is the cardinal manner of spread outing the credibleness and effectivity of their coverage, and finally their public presentation. Engagement of the intended users in the battle of the hearer is really of import to avoid outlook spread. This is to guarantee that both the preparer and users acknowledge the function of hearer and minimise the misinterpretation between them. An hearer plays an of import function to construct up the grade of assurance of users towards the quality of the information, so that the users can utilize this information to do their informed determinations.

Harmonizing to Coram, Monroe and Woodliff ( 2005 ) , an assurer or hearer should supply credibleness on the information to investors and creditors to guarantee that independently-audited information can understate any information dissymmetry and decreases any uncertainnesss. This would increase the investors ‘ trust on the voluntary revelation of non-financial information when they are provided with the information by the direction, since investors, being the principal, may non swear the non-financial information prepared by the managerial managers, who are their agent. This is in conformity to the bureau theory that we have learned in the talk session.

Morever, an assurer should heighten and supply confidence on the truth, completeness and dependability placed on its sustainability study to guarantee that the stakeholder ‘s concerns about the credibleness of sustainability studies are satisfied. The study may include the organisation ‘s policies and inter patterns. Dando and Swift ( 2003 ) stated that the function of independent external confidence plays a greater importance in guaranting that the newsman presents non-financial information that is just, complete, indifferent and relevant. It is hoped that with external confidence, the credibleness of the non-financial information is sustained and the trust of the stakeholders towards the direction is built.

Harmonizing to a populace sector study conducted by the Royal NIVRA Amsterdam ( 2008 ) , users regard relevancy every bit of import as dependability, but they frequently start with the premise that the information is already dependable by itself. Therefore, communicating between the direction, users and hearers of non-financial information is genuinely critical to heighten the quality of the non-financial information. Assurance comes into the image when the users of the fiscal information privation dependable information. Hearers can merely supply quality confidence on the relevancy and dependability of information with clear dei¬?nition, frame of mention and coverage model with respects to their audit fieldwork. Hearers can merely supply confidence if they have a clear model to measure the information and have sufficient cognition about the organisations and their information systems.

Assurance serves a great importance to the credibleness of disclosed information. It minimises the degree of noise contained in the disclosed information and facilitates greater user assurance. Assurance suppliers develop a repute throughout their auditing profession, and this has placed the criterions and quality controls to vouch the consistent quality of battles that are being undertaken by their members ( Simnett, Vanstraelen and Wai, 2006 ) .

Harmonizing to Main and Hespenheide ( 2011 ) , comptrollers, particularly the assurers, should hold the cognition of societal, environmental and sustainability issues in order to back up the development of internationally accepted measuring and coverage criterions. This is done so that assurers to the full understand the deductions of supplying non-financial confidence. Professionals ‘ confidence would guarantee that the non-financial studies have been given the due attention needed to supply readers with assurance that all concerns, such as materiality, hazard direction and hereafter proofing have been addressed. Recognized quality criterions can besides be met if the confidence on the non-financial information is relevant and dependable. In the instance whereby the direction is responsible for any inaccuracies in the non-financial information, independent external confidence can supply grounds on the inaccuracy and study about it to the stockholders.

Professional accounting associations, such as the big accounting ( Large 4 ) houses, have stated their committedness to CSR and sustainability. The accounting profession ‘s function in CSR is to fix audit or confidence statements to CSR or sustainability studies. In Corporate Social Reporting, there are 11 describing rules with similar properties as fiscal accounting. Stanwick and Stanwick ( 2006 ) stated that these 11 rules are auditability, completeness, relevancy, truth, neutrality, comparison, and seasonableness, transparence, inclusiveness, lucidity and context ( as cited in Tilt, 2009 ) . Assurance ensures that these coverage rules are followed consequently.

On the inquiry whether the confidence provides dependability or relevancy in non-financial information, we should look into CSR. There are companies which tend to pick specific CSR issues, such as those related to wellness, safety, and environment that they consider strategic to be included in their CSR studies. They focus on these to distinguish themselves from other socially responsible rivals in order to increase the sustainability of acquired advantages ( Perrini, 2006 ) . However, it is the opposite from another point of position ; companies that lead in the country of CSR “ constantly promote their less responsible rivals to emulate their behaviour ” . As companies tend to meet on a limited set of CSR chief subjects and dealingss with stakeholders, variegation does non use straight to behavior or countries of societal duty, but instead to the degree of corporate engagement within each individual country of CSR.

All companies should incorporate societal and environmental duties in their dealingss with stakeholders and at the same clip, they should look for strategic variegation in footings of specific manners of development. Since the interactions with stakeholders are at the same time amiss imitable and non-substitutable, they can be managed strategically. These interactions besides represent valuable beginnings of competitory advantage. Therefore, coverage of CSR public presentation would really be of relevant and material information that is material to the company ‘s cardinal stakeholders and determination shapers.

Accountants provide a mechanism for the keeping corporations to be accountable for their actions related to the direction of the companies. CSR covers a assortment of issue including moralss, administration, societal activities such as philanthropic gift and community engagement, merchandise safety, equal chances, human rights and environmental activities. Based on a study conducted by Simnett, Vanstraelen and Wai ( 2006 ) , it is found out that out of 1,700 persons stand foring employees, faculty members, NGOs and other involvement groups, most of them agreed that external formal confirmation and honestness in declaring negative facets are the cardinal elements to bring forth a successful Corporate Sustainability Report ( CSR ) .

Harmonizing to the Directorate General for The Internal Market And Services in the European Commission ( 2011 ) , respondents which include a bulk of users, NGOs and other organisations, and comptrollers and hearers, by and large expressed that there is value in acquiring the non-financial studies assessed by independent, qualified experts in order to better truth, completeness and comparison. This is besides done to heighten assurance amongst the stakeholders. Those respondents besides indicated that external confidence on non-financial information involves activities and makings significantly different than those required for scrutinizing fiscal statements.

Geoff and Nonna ( 2010 ) had conducted interviews with confidence suppliers and preparers of non-financial information on the likely future way of confidence of non-financial information. Based on the interviews, it was discovered by the two bookmans that the audit and confidence field has been viewed as a critical constituent of a quality coverage model. Within the field of environmental direction, conformity audits were ab initio undertaken as portion of the organisations ‘ responses within the regulative model. There is besides a general consensus that confidence adds, or has the possible to add, to the ( perceived ) credibleness and quality of sustainability studies. Most respondents believe that confidence contributes to betterments in the operations and hazard direction of an organisation ‘s sustainability patterns.

As for the investors in the stock market, they would bespeak for more non-financial information in add-on to fiscal information in order to capture some of the values stemming from intangible assets [ Alwert et al. , 2009 ; EFFAS Commission on Intellectual Capital, 2008 ; Holland and Johanson, 2003 ; Phillips, 2001 ; Eccles and Mavrinac, 1995 ( as cited in Arvidsson, 2011 ) ] . Harmonizing to Mavrinac and Siesfeld, portfolio directors regarded that on mean 35 per cent of their investing determinations were influenced by non-financial information. One-third of them were of the sentiment that increased revelation of non-financial information should be mandated ( as cited in Arvidsson, 2011 ) .

However, the procedure of publishing compulsory demands related to intangible assets goes easy. This is supported by a study of 388 fund directors and analysts and 80 investor dealingss officers conducted by Deloitte and others, which shows that half of them believed that consideration of societal and environmental public presentation would go a significantly of import facet of mainstream investing determination within the following three old ages, and 70 % think societal and environmental information should be assured by a third-party.

Based on a research performed by Hoff and Wood ( 2008 ) , reports show that both retail investors and professional investors acknowledged past usage of nonfinancial information, and these two groups of investors expect to utilize such information more in the hereafter. These investors besides suggested that scrutinizing and other signifiers of third-party confirmation would increase the dependability of non-financial information. This shows that in the eyes of the investors, confidence is necessary to better the relevancy and dependability of non-financial information by organisations.

However, investors may besides hold incredulity toward the dependability of corporate coverage of non-financial information, which is said to be overpoweringly positive and non clearly linked to corporate public presentation. This is in combination with a corporate revelation regulative government, which neither authorizations nor sets criterions for non-financial coverage. Nevertheless, investors tend to dismiss non-financial information to the extent that they find it uncomparable, undependable, or non straight material to corporate public presentation ( Hoff & A ; Wood, 2008 ) . ACCA, Accountability & A ; KPMG ( 2009 ) besides agreed that investors tend to dismiss the non-financial information.

However, farther experiments by Hoff and Wood ( 2008 ) revealed that both retail and professional investors did non well modify their decision-making when presented with audited or non-audited nonfinancial information. This shows that although involvement from corporations in describing this information clearly exists, it has non yet led to a to the full fleshed system of informations of usage to investors. While investors are integrating such information in their decision-making, and program to make more in the hereafter, they have non yet developed a systematic manner to integrate such non-financial information to the full into their decision-making procedure. Companies aided by confidence supplier have to show information in a mode that efficaciously communicates its relevancy to corporate value where investors are more likely to pay attending.

Harmonizing to Dando and Swift ( 2003 ) , the grade to which stakeholders are able to trust on and trust corporate societal and environmental histories is a marker of the efficaciousness, earnestness and legitimacy of answerability procedures. Greater degrees of transparence are non plenty to show duty or enrich trust and assurance that an organisation is sufficiently committed to a sustainability docket. Responsiveness, acquisition, invention and public presentation betterment are critical links between transparence and answerability. Reporting must be accompanied by robust and independent confidence of these facets which requires an attack to assurance that goes beyond what is offered by the truth focused theoretical accounts of fiscal accounting and scrutinizing. All these are expected from the confidence pattern.

Arvidsson ( 2011 ) claimed that from the position of direction, the IRMs ( investor-relation directors ) communicate non-financial information in the one-year study based on three inducements. These three inducements for the investors to trust on non-financial information are their desire to heighten their apprehension of the company, their belief that the non-financial information would convey a full and just revelation, and their involvement towards the less touchable values described by the non-financial studies. This 3rd inducement is related to the relevancy of the non-financial information to the users, or in this, the investors.

There are a few bookmans who besides agreed with Dando and Swift. Alwer et Al ( 2009 ) states that from the position of users of corporate information, such as stock-market histrions or investors, their inducements for demanding and utilizing non-financial revelations are for more dependable appraisals of corporate value ( as cited in Arvidsson, 2011 ) . An apprehension of the function of intangibles in value creative activity and in corporate rating ( Holland, 2001 ) and an augmentation of fiscal prognosiss ( Eccles and Mavrinac, 1995 ) are the grounds for the investors to depend on the non-financial information. With these inducements proposed by the bookmans, it appears that IRMs have acknowledged the demands of the stakeholder group through non-financial coverage.

Furthermore, IRMs stated that non-financial information is amounted to 35.7 per cent of the one-year study. 65 per centum of the IRM respondents said that the measure of non-financial information had increased during the last three old ages ( Arvidsson, 2011 ) . Therefore, all these findings imply that there is a demand for non-financial information from the stakeholders. The confidence supplier has to guarantee that the measure of non fiscal information reported is sufficient for the users.

There is a clearly a greater involvement and demand from both the fiscal community and stakeholders for information on intangible assets. They believe that the best manner to capture some of the value of intangible assets is by trusting on more non-financial information. Harmonizing to the study conducted by Arvidsson ( 2011 ) , 70 per cent of the IRMs believe that non-financial information focused on intangible assets is sufficiently reported in today ‘s one-year study. However, both practicians and bookmans stated that companies ‘ revelations of non-financial information are still slightly hapless ( Lock Lee and Guthrie, 2010 ; Alwert et al. , 2009 ; EFFAS Commission on Intellectual Capital, 2008 ) . The study supports the findings in Bismuth and Tojo ( 2008 ) that direction squads in big listed companies appear loath to describe on intangible assets by pass oning non-financial information on a regular basis.

More than 80 per cent ( 81.3 ) of the IRMs relates non-financial information to company ‘s scheme, as it explains how it affects the value-creation procedure. IRMs farther stated that the demand to concentrate more on non-financial information likely would be met, since the direction squad is acquiring more cognizant of the importance to place and pass on the long-run value drivers present in the value-creation procedure.

Some IRMs emphasized the necessity of non-financial information to be more decently structured in the one-year study. They see a hereafter development towards more compulsory demands that province which non-financial information should be included and how they should be presented in the one-year study. This is a small contradicting to Eccles and Mavrinac ( 1995 ) , who stated that the direction squad is the party least interested in compulsory demands compared to fiscal analysts and investors.

Harmonizing ICAEW ( 2008 ) , because of the nature of non-financial information, confidence practicians need to be cognizant of the practical challenges that they may confront when executing audit, such as independency considerations, the possible demand for specializer, cognition, placing suited standards, obtaining grounds about qualitative or frontward looking information, and understanding the users and their demands. In order to increase coverage and supplying confidence on non-financial information, it is important to hold administration attending at the highest degree and direction rhythm of information.

Assurance in the private sector is instead different to the field in the populace sector. For the populace sector, non-financial information is defined as all quantitative and qualitative informations on the policy pursued and concern operations. The informations are normally the consequences of this policy in the signifier of end product or result, without a direct nexus to the fiscal enrollment system. However, this definition can be applied to the private sector by replacing the term policy with mission, scheme or corporate aims ( Admiraal, Nivra & A ; Turksema, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to NIVRA Amsterdam ( 2008 ) , governors, politicians, accountants and authorities audit offices have become more interested in public presentation informations in budgets and studies. Therefore, there is a demand for more structuring, standardisation and counsel as there is non yet a by and large recognized system for administrating and describing non-financial information.

Regardless of whether it is private or public sector, relevancy is linked to the demands and the degree of the user. The regulating organic structure and the direction with support from the public accountant are responsible for the dependability of the information. The inquiry on whether a study meets users ‘ wants depends on the quality of the information. One of the quality standard is dependability. This quality can be safeguarded by steps taken in progress and afterwards.

External confidence is non the lone party who is responsible for the relevancy and dependability of non-financial information reported by the direction. Both internal hearer and external hearer play a portion if an sentiment is required on the dependability of the information. In supplying confidence, the internal hearer can verify on whether the direction is moving systematically with the aims of the organisation. He or she should besides guarantee that the direction control system is working adequately and the information supplied is dependable and relevant. The internal hearer should hold an consultative function in the design and security of a dependable information system. As for the external hearer, he or she plays the functions in analyzing the quality of the information, describing it to users, and neutralizing any struggle of involvements and the bing difference in cognition.


It is both disputing to include non-financial information in the coverage procedure and to supply confidence on the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage. This is due to the fact that it is really difficult or impossible to mensurate non-financial information. When one can non mensurate non-financial information, so it is non possible to supply a proper study on non-financial information.

Some premises would be needed in order to step and describe non-financial information. Since there are many premises that can be used, it would be difficult to supply confidence on non-financial information. The premises used in describing non-financial information can change and are really subjective. Therefore, it is disputing for confidence in bettering dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage. Those who in charge of confidence can non presume that the premise used is incorrect when it is different from what they usually do when it comes to non-financial information coverage. In order to better the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage, the individuals who are responsible for confidence would necessitate more information on how the comptrollers come out with their premises.

Another challenge of non-financial information coverage is that most direction people that understand the importance of non-financial information coverage. Normally, the direction would set more focal point on the fiscal information that they neglect non-financial information.

Harmonizing to a study done by Deloitte ( 2007 ) , there are many board members and senior executives who are still in the dark about the overall wellness of their organisations as they ignore about the non-financial information. Even though they have become more cognizant of the turning demand to understand their public presentation through non-financial measurings, the executives admit that their ability to step and proctor public presentation through non-financial measurings are unequal. It would be really disputing for confidence to play a function in bettering the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage if direction themselves do non care about non-financial information coverage. Even if they unwrap non-financial information to fulfill the users ‘ demands, non much information would be provided as they do non believe that it is of import to make so.

In order to heighten the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage, foremost and first, the support from direction is needed. The manner the direction reports the non-financial information can hold an impact on the confidence of non-financial information coverage. If the direction provides more information, it would be easier for confidence to guarantee that the non-financial information coverage is dependable and relevant.

ACCA, AccountAbility, and KPMG ( 2009 ) recommended that in the long term, there would be a demand for a new design that creates a coverage and confidence theoretical account which is stakeholder-focused, principles-based, integrated ( fiscal and non-financial ) , applicable internationally, easy to understand, and economically efficient for concern. In order to make this theoretical account for the hereafter, comptrollers have an tremendous function to play as they have immense duties to determine the hereafter landscape. Although the comptrollers have tremendous functions, they have to be cognizant that they would necessitate to work with other professionals, such as the assurers, in order to efficaciously and expeditiously make this theoretical account for the hereafter. Nowadays, both the criterions and confidence patterns are germinating. That is the ground confidence besides plays a big function in information coverage ( both fiscal and non-financial ) , as compared to the accounting side of the field.

Based on our analysis of the briefing paper written by ACCA, AccountAbility, and KPMG ( 2009 ) , we would wish to hold with the writers of the paper that the comptrollers, when developing their non-financial confidence cognition, should work together with those experient people who understand the non-financial impacts, since those experts are in a place to inquiry about the pick of materiality and reactivity by a corporate organisation. It is of import to hold a clear confidence procedure and degree of recognized professional value, which includes unity and transparence in non-financial information coverage, since this type of coverage is still something new. The users of fiscal statement would be more confident towards the credibleness of non-financial information coverage when there are clear procedure and criterions for it. Without any clear procedure and criterions for non-financial information coverage, the users of one-year studies would non believe that non-financial information is dependable and relevant.

In order to to the full understand the deductions of supplying non-financial confidence, ACCA, AccountAbility, and KPMG ( 2009 ) recommended that the comptrollers should be constructing their cognition of societal, environmental and sustainability issues and back uping the development of internationally accepted measuring and coverage criterions. Detailed apprehension on both non-financial information and accounting criterions can assist comptrollers to associate non-financial information with the accounting criterions. Users of non-financial studies are concerned about certain issues such as materiality, hazard direction and hereafter proofing which should be decently addressed in non-financial study. Since non-financial information coverage is still new, the users of non-financial studies would be more confident if the assured non-financial studies have been given the due attention needed and the recognized quality criterions have been met.

In our sentiment, integrated ( fiscal and non-financial ) coverage and confidence should be created in the hereafter as non-financial information is going more and more of import. One should non merely rely on fiscal information as this information does non supply full information ; non-financial information can hold a big impact on fiscal coverage and confidence.

There are certain hazards that are associated with non-financial information, and those hazards would non be detected if the companies do non include non-financial information in their coverage. Some companies might be in problem and they would be in the dark if they do non utilize non-financial information to mensurate their public presentation. They would non cognize what hit them until it is excessively late. Fiscal information focuses more on the coverage procedure of the history or past public presentation of a company, whereas non-financial information is more about foretelling what would go on in the hereafter and what should be done now to accomplish the ends and aims established by the company.

One of our recommendations in order to undertake the challenges in our Malayan context is for the Malayan Accounting Standards Board ( MASB ) to put approved accounting criterions on non-financial information coverage. Most companies do non cognize how to decently fix non-financial information coverage. By puting the criterions on non-financial information coverage, proper guidelines on fixing non-financial information can assist comptrollers to properly describe the non-financial information and aid hearers to scrutinize the studies accurately and reasonably.

A proper guideline would assist confidence in finding how the companies measure non-financial information and the methods used would non change excessively much as compared to other companies. This would be easier for confidence to supply confidence on non-financial information coverage and hence better the dependability and relevancy of the confidence provided on non-financial information coverage. There are many facets of non-financial information that should be provided in the studies as that information can impact the public presentation of the companies. After puting the criterions associating to non-financial information coverage, it is of import to guarantee that the criterions are being complied with.

Therefore, we would besides wish to urge that Securities Commission ( SC ) can back up MASB by guaranting that public-listed companies comply with the accounting criterions on non-financial information. Securities Commission has the statutory power to implement conformity with its ordinances and hence they have the power to guarantee that non-financial information is reported. When there are more companies that include non-financial information coverage, there would be more information about non-financial information available. With more information, the confidence of non-financial information would be more relevant and dependable. One company can larn from other companies to better on the confidence provided for non-financial information coverage. The confidence provided for non-financial information coverage would so be more dependable and relevant.

Another recommendation that we would wish to suggest is Malayan Institute of Accountants ( MIA ) should educate hearers on scrutinizing non-financial information coverage. It is non easy to mensurate non-financial information. There can be many ways to mensurate non-financial information as the reply is non something specific. If there are proper guidelines provided by the relevant governmental and professional organic structures, it would be easier to properly record non-financial information and audit non-financial information.

MIA should supply its members with more preparation programme on non-financial information, since there are more companies that emphasize the importance on non-financial information presents. With proper preparation programmes, there would be more MIA members who are knowing on non-financial information. Thus, confidence on non-financial information can be more dependable and relevant as the people who are in charge of both fixing the non-financial information studies and supplying confidence for them are more competent in executing their responsibilities. There are more executives who have realized the importance of non-financial information coverage. This is why the demand for experts on non-financial information coverage is on the rise. By supplying sufficient preparation programmes for accounting practicians, MIA would fit their members better to get by with the turning demand for experts on non-financial information coverage.

In the hereafter, confidence should play a larger function in bettering the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information. The Numberss of companies that include non-financial information in their studies are turning. Therefore, confidence is needed to guarantee that the companies report non-financial information accurately and reasonably. Lone professionals who have broad cognition on non-financial information and understand this information can truly give a dependable and relevant confidence on non-financial information coverage.

Since non-financial information can be really wide, confidence is needed to guarantee that merely non-financial information that can impact the public presentation of a company should be included in the studies. It would non be utile if the companies provide much non-financial information coverage but that information really does non assist in mensurating the company ‘s public presentation. It would be a waste of clip and resources if the non-financial information provided does non hold a value in it or there is no manner to obtain value from the information provided. Therefore, it is of import for confidence to guarantee that non-financial information reported is dependable and relevant and is non something worthless.

The way-forward of the hereafter coverage is there should be both fiscal and non-financial information that would be reported by direction in many old ages to come. Historical information is non plenty and most fiscal information is historical. Organizations should concentrate more on their hereafter by fixing dependable and relevant non-financial information as this information would supply a image on the sustainability of the organisations in the hereafter. There are many uncertainnesss but if the companies know how to utilize the non-financial information good, it can be used to foretell the hereafter of the companies and the hazards of uncertainness would be lower. If companies merely report on fiscal information, it would be difficult to avoid some of the hazards that are associated with non-financial information. Based on the study prepared by Deloitte ( 2007 ) , there is a turning figure of executives who suspect that there may be undiscovered value in non-financial information. Companies may be able to detect a broad scope of prognostic, advanced managerial tools when they include the non-financial information in their coverage procedure.

Most companies focus on earning net income and that is why they largely merely expression on fiscal information. However, recently it has become clearer that non-financial information can hold an impact on the profitableness of a company. Therefore, directors should recognize the importance of non-financial information as they can impact the profitableness of companies. When the directors start to recognize the importance of non-financial information on net income earned, they would desire to include non-financial information in their studies. Globalization would impact the profitableness of a company as there are some hazards that can non be seen merely by looking at the fiscal information ; those hazards can merely be seen from non-financial information. Technology promotion can assist to mensurate non-financial information more accurately and supply a better confidence that is dependable and relevant. Nowadays, many people depend on engineering to make their work. Technology should be able to assist in bettering the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage.

All in all, confidence does play a function in bettering dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage and it is of import to include non-financial information in coverage. There are many users who on confidence to supply confidence on the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information. This is because the users of fiscal statement might non be competent plenty to find the dependability and relevancy of non-financial information coverage. Therefore, merely those who are competent plenty about non-financial information coverage should supply confidence of non-financial information coverage. Without confidence, most companies may conceal information and do non supply dependable and relevant non-financial information coverage.