Procedure: Problems and Solutions Essay




This study will discourse and measure the production grapevine of the concluding twelvemonth research undertaking by Matthew Jackson entitled “End of the Line” , in comparing to the methods used in the professional industry. It will look into the procedures, tools and assorted techniques throughout the production and creative activity of a CG ( Computer Graphics ) enironment, edge for life, while bring outing the issues encountered in the aforesaid undertaking and their several solutions.


I wish to admit and thank a few people for their counsel and aid during the proficient creative activity of the environment and globally throughout the continuance of this undertaking. First, my supervisor, Dr. Paul Noble, for his eternal feedback over the past 9 months every bit good as my co-workers and fellow pupils at Teesside University for supplying me with the motive and mental strength needed to force my undertaking to its completion and beyond.



In recent old ages the catastrophe genre has made a important impact on the movie industry, nevertheless this success has non yet been to the full investigated in other digital media industries such as life, while similar genres, such as post-apocalypse and living dead horror games have been combined with facets from the catastrophe genre and are dining in these really countries. Examples of picture games which have late been on the taking border of this roar include Last of Us ( Naughty Dog, 2013 ) , DayZ ( Bohemia Interactive, 2013 ) and Diing Light ( Techland, 2015 ) . These games all demonstrate first-class environmental design and stick to their genre tightly, nevertheless, although video games have utilised this dynamic genre, computing machine lifes are yet to do the passage.

The “End of the Line” is an computing machine artworks ( CG ) environmental development undertaking which focuses around the aim of bring forthing a typical and believeable American metro station environment, suited for integrating into a computing machine life, with the add-on of pulling upon existent universe illustrations and mentions to heighten its truth.

This undertaking aims to spread out my cognition of industry-standard 3D CG grapevines, work flows and patterns when set abouting the creative activity of a CG environment, from construct through to concluding merchandise for usage in a computing machine life. In bend I will compare and larn about professional patterns at each phase of the grapevine, before implementing a sound pick into my ain work flow and eventually measuring the cumilative advancement, effectivity and prosperity of my ability to implement these patterns.

Other research included in this undertaking which will be discussed in this appraising study includes the usage of physically based rendition patterns ( including shader nodes and CG visible radiations within Maya 2015 ( Autodesk Inc. , 2015 ) ) , an overview of the architecture designs of the New York City Subway system and coloring material theory ( including their use alongside post-production methods such as coloring material rating compositing ) .

This study is subdivided into four farther subdivisions, researching the statements and research outlined above. These are:

  • Methodology
  • Research
  • Production Procedure: Problems and Solutions
  • Production Evaluation
  • Decision


The industry-standard CG life grapevine has ever been comparatively unchanging since the first feature-length animated movie, Toy Story ( Pixar Animation Studios, 1995 ) , was released, where the procedure was foremost standardised, but this grapevine was antecedently adapted from the Ocular Effects ( VFX ) industry antecedently established. Since, this grapevine has provided the solid anchor for about any wholly CG movie or short life, with its three clear defined subdivisions, divided into sub-sections, which represent the assorted subjects. Due to the fact that this method has been implemented successfully with few alterations for over 20 old ages, I have utilised this construction for my ain undertaking.

The three subdivisions include: pre-production, production and post-production. Pre-production is basically the planning and research subdivision of the undertaking. Designs, constructs and research are completed every bit good as the undertaking political orientation being secured. Some of the sections chiefly identified by the Animation Production Pipeline ( Nora Willett, 2010 ) in the pre-production phase include: storyboarding and construct designs. She so goes onto discuss the production phase which follows the completion of pre-production. This phase includes the nucleus elements of the CG life creative activity, including: modeling, texturing, set uping, set dressing ( or environmental creative activity ) , layout, life and effects ( or simulations ) and rendering. The production phase provides a additive, but really flexible platform for the coevals of content for the life. At any clip each phase can be revisited if jobs are exposed and alterations made. In kernel, this phase represents a changeless circle of betterments from all the included sections until the manager is satisfied with the concluding merchandise. Fabio Pellacini, a former grapevine research worker at Pixar Animation Studios describes the perpendicular hierarchal grapevine at the studio following these nucleus work flows ( Fig.1 ) .

For the production phase I followed a really additive version of this construction, nevertheless as discussed above I revisited subdivisions to do betterments when bugs or parts of the grapevine clashed with the advancement made during the production phase. Although I have non used all of these countries due to the specialized nature of my undertaking, the major have still be included as has the overall work flow.

Finally, I used the full array of subdivisions in the standard CG grapevine. These are: redaction, compositing and color scaling. Editing was included to guarantee that the shootings integrated good together, while the compositing and coloring material scaling were used to wipe out any isolated artifacts and color direction mistakes present in the concluding images which were overlooked during the rendering procedure. Each country of the grapevine will be discussed more in deepness in the Production Process subdivision of this study, including jobs encountered and solutions hence found.

Since this undertaking focuses on all countries of the traditional 3D CG grapevine, before its beginning I evaluated my ain accomplishments to to the full understand the subjects which I would necessitate to research to fit myself with the relevant accomplishments required to finish the undertaking.

Besides prior to the undertaking I consulted prior comparable undertakings to measure the right timescale needed, based on my accomplishments to finish the assorted subdivisions of the grapevine. The consequence programming is shown in Fig. 2.



This research subdivision will speak about the aggregation of research undertaken for this undertaking, alongside its impact and execution. I used the research to better my accomplishments and consolidate any weak competences, so that a high degree of quality was achieved through.

The first country of research centred around look intoing physically based shaders, texture node webs and illuming in Maya 2015 ( Autodesk Inc. , 2015 ) , finally associating to rendering through the Mental Ray renderer ( Autodesk, 2007 ) .

Physically Accurate Texture ShadersPhysically based shaders such as those in Mental Ray’s Architectural and Design Visualisation Library ( mia_material_x, mia_material_sss, etc. ) differ from the standard Maya shaders because they scatter and react to visible radiation in a realistic mode whereas the default Maya shaders do non. These shaders will necessitate small alteration in order to reflect existent universe stuffs, since in world all stuffs have a mirrorlike value and RGB value which can be applied to the shader.

As described in Digital Lighting and Rendering ( Brin, J. , 2014, p.323 ) a material’s attributes, such as its diffuse coloring material, specularity, contemplation and refractile nature are defined by its bidirectional coefficient of reflection distribution map ( BRDF ) . This map defines how much visible radiation is reflected and absorbed by the stuff from assorted different angles. Mental Ray’s physically accurate mia texure shaders are based on accurate BRDF informations whereas their Maya shader opposite numbers utilise a more generalized and cut down version of this BRDF dataset, hence cut downing their truth. The same dataset theory besides applies to the illuminating and sub-surface sprinkling shaders ( for usage on tegument and works affair ) .

Following this research I entirely used shaders from Mental Ray’s Architectural and Design Visualisation Library, so that I could guarantee that all objects and therefore their mapped textures reflected visible radiation in a physically accurate mode.

Physically Based LightingPhysical based visible radiations are CG visible radiations that emit light harmonizing to connected IES ( Lighting Engineering Society ) Profile information which reflects that of existent universe trade names and theoretical accounts of light bulb ( Digital Lighting and Rendering, Brin, J. , 2014, p35-36 ) . IES profiles, readily available from many beginnings online modify the criterion Maya lights’ attributes into real-world units, for illustration, lms and color temperature. The lumens defines the strength of the visible radiation, while the color temperature dictates the diffuse coloring material of the visible radiations. Most standard xanthous wolfram visible radiation bulbs step approximately 3200°Kelvin ( °K ) , luminescent white strip visible radiations step at 4200°K, while nature sunlight rates anyhow between 5000-10,000°K depending on the lighting and conditions conditions ( hypertext transfer protocol: //,What is Color Temperature,Future Publishing, 2012 ) .

When puting the light’s strength utilizing lms, you can easy cipher the value based on the light bulb’s electrical power evaluation. Whereas with standard CG lighting you have to constantly modify the strength and therefore bring forth a battalion of renders until you find the right scenes. With lms you can put the strength value to the light bulb’s theoretical accounts correct value and so you are left with merely one value to alter, the camera’s exposure scenes, instead than potentially 100s. This pays dividends and drastically reduces the sum of clip spent puting up the lighting rig, which can finally be spent on polishing other countries of the grapevine which are much more experimental.

Linear WorkflowUsing additive work flow is an indispensable portion of the CG grapevine, particularly within professional, industry-standard bundles such as 3D Studio Max ( Autodesk Inc. , 2015 ) and Maya ( Autodesk Inc. , 2015 ) . When an image is produced from a renderer it has a gamma curve applied to it, nevertheless when we view this image on a proctor this gamma rectification curve is applied for a 2nd clip, hence significantly skewing the coloring material information and exposing it falsely. In order to rectify this to guarantee the on-screen coloring material degrees match those displayed on the proctor post-rendering, a additive workflow color direction apparatus needs to be adhered to. By puting this up in the 3D bundle, the rendered image is given the reverse gamma curve on end product therefore ensuing in a coloring material degree which is the same as that shown in the bundle ( hypertext transfer protocol: //,Colour Managed Linear Workflow,Autodesk Inc. , 2014 ) .

Incorrect use, apparatus or neglect for this system workflow will do unrealistic decay, blown out high spots and physically inaccurate lighting.

Architectural Designs of NY Subway

Colour Theory / Post Production techniques for temper


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Toy Story ( Pixar Animation Studios, 1995 )

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Pixar Animation Studios

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Physcially accurate shaders

Digital Lighting and Rendering ( Brin, J. , 2014 ) – p.323-324

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