Accounting by and large been regarded as the linguistic communication of concern, and this linguistic communication has been spoken in every facet of people ‘s day-to-day lives. As a good linguistic communication should easy for people to larn and hold clear apprehension, accounting information focal point on greater answerability and comparison. The cardinal factor that control these features is the “ grammar ” of accounting, the ordinance rules. With respects to the address by Hans Hoogervorst, Chairman of IASB, this study will discourse advantages of utilizing principle-based accounting criterions instead than rule-based accounting criterions and at the same clip give some remarks to its drawbacks which should be developed in the hereafter.
“ For the really ground that accounting is non an exact scientific discipline, ‘principle-based ‘ or ‘substance-over-form ‘ attack for standard scene remains the right manner frontward ” ( Hans Hoogervorst, 2012 ) . “ Exact scientific discipline ” in this address means if calculate process precise plenty, you can number on the results. From this point of position accounting so out the boundary line of an exact scientific discipline because the scope of accounting is much larger than give a exact consequence, some other facets like dependability of accounting information revelation methods, sing public involvement, and forestalling fraud should besides be took into consideration by comptrollers. Hence, accounting need a efficient ordinance criterions system to get by with different inquiries found in accounting patterns which can besides heighten companies ‘ competency and comparison in the market. However whether utilizing principle-based accounting system or rule-based accounting criterion has already aroused a batch of argument. This research statement is to explicate the grounds of why principle-based is better by discuss its advantages and disadvantages. As words bounds, it will concentrate on the most presently subjects in this country which are closely linked to accounting pattern and nowadays economic environment.
By and large talking, principle-based accounting criterions provide a conceptual based counsel to histories instead than ball of elaborate regulations. As consider the major aim of accounting is to supply a relevant, dependable, and comparable accounting statement across describing periods, the rule base would be more appropriate to make this object because it has these advantages as follows.
First of all principle-based accounting criterions can supply more accurate accounting statements because this method focal point on the existent universe economic environment in order to reflect a company ‘s fiscal place more right. For illustration, Hans Hoogervorst ( 2012 ) has figured out, under rule-based criterion intangible assets normally be record on their historical cost instead than just value which may non correctly reflect their true value. On the contrast, principle-based accounting prefer utilizing just value to enter these assets because some intangible assets obsolete highly fast particularly after the dot.com bubble. Take the movie strip as an illustration, the patent holder, Kodak, who was continue valuing its valley on its historical cost for more than ten old ages even after the digital camera populated, this cause the direction misconstrue their fiscal positon and at last this celebrated house has to travel belly-up. From this instance it can be known that principle-based accounting system has more flexibleness than rule-based system.
Second, when confronting an existent accounting fact, principle-based accounting standard normally provide a conceptual counsel to comptrollers alternatively of a list of regulations. This method can avoid people manipulate regulations for their ego involvements. A survey relevant to renting accounting can back up this. In 1980s, USA, under the accounting criterion ( GAAP ) utilizing at that clip, leasing was treated as a off-balance sheet-financing, so tonss of companies would purchase one plus, rapidly sell it to 3rd party, and rent it back to avoid record liability on the balance sheet. In order to modulate market, GAAP award new regulations which stated that If a contract satisfies any of a four standard, it must be recognized as a capital rental in the fiscal statements ( GAAP 2002 ) . However, companies manipulated points on rental contracts carefully to avoid these four standards and do this clip ordinance peers to observing. If similar state of affairs happened on principle-based criterions, those companies would free their instance because principle-based accounting supply a guideline that required company should disclosure their fiscal positon on true and just value bases.
Another advantage of utilizing principle-based accounting criterions is that it could simplify criterions to do it easy reading and apprehension. Herz ( 2002 ) has pointed out that “ a principles-based system normally less than 12 pages long, but rule-based system by and large more than 100 pages ” . For company, clip peers money, a criterion with good communicating accomplishments and clear construction can salvage company a great sum of money particularly on new employee preparation and subordinate edifice. As in the tendency of globalisation, an progressively figure of houses choose to board their concern to oversea market, a simper criterion can greatly cut down company ‘s cost in this country and increase its future competency. At the same clip, Public investors normally tendency to put on those companies utilizing a easy understanding criterions such as IASB, therefore if a company what to pull investor ‘s attending it should fall in the large household of principle-based accounting system.
Last but non the least, the principle-based system allow comptrollers make their ain judgement during the patterns while under rule-based system comptrollers have to look into the regulations over and over once more or make some “ box-ticking ” works to guarantee there is no errors ( Rebecca 2004 ) . Form this point, rule-based system really disregards the value of comptroller ‘s working experience which can salvage the company a great figure of resources, and for some state of affairs homo ‘s judgement may hold better public presentation than stiff regulations. For illustration, some comptrollers with experience can easy do a judgement by looking some cardinal figures in the statement, there is no demand to look into each figure. As principle-based system allow comptrollers do this manner it can enormously heighten the efficiency of the company.
However, observing is perfect, principle-based criterions besides have some drawbacks. First as this method base on the wide position of accounting, sometimes it possibly excessively board to cover with elaborate inquiry. For illustration, FASB states the qualities of relevancy and dependability, it does non supply any counsel for merchandising one for the other ( FASB 2002 ) . Second drawback is equivocal description. For case, under IASB a debt security has to be measured at market value when it is held for trading intents, but it is reported at historic cost if it is held to adulthood ( IFRS 2012 ) . But counterintuitively, a authorities bond which is a investing merchandise held to adulthood normally record on the market value base on price reduction method. It is difficult to make up one’s mind what sort of state of affairs can handle a debt security like this manner. These two deficits can be categorized as uncomplete content and equivocal descriptions which need to be focus by standard compositor in the hereafter.
To sum up, this statement compared principle-based accounting system with rule-based accounting system and point out the former is better because it is more flexible dependable and simpler than subsequently. However it besides has some drawback which stands on uncomplete content and equivocal descriptions. As Hans said “ principle-based criterion scene remains the right manner frontward ” . There is no uncertainty about that future economic environment will convey new challenges to the criterion compositors, to get by with this they should continuously set criterions to suit the demand of its users. While “ competitory status tendency to do survival hard for those who are continually taking the long terminal of the ‘take and give ‘ of mundane concern ” ( Harry D. Kerrigan ) it is necessary for those troughs apply a set of principle-based accounting criterions on their entities to allow them work efficaciously and efficiency.