The Health And Safety Regulations In South Africa Construction Essay

Globally, the edifice industry has an unfortunate wellness and safety record and South Africa is no freedom. Construction H & A ; S has long been the focal point of attending of many industry function participants in South Africa, and while it is acknowledged that many industry associations and professional societies, undertaking administrations and others have made important attempts to better H & A ; S within the building industry, . Notably, building continues to lend a disproportional figure of human deaths and hurts and there continues to be a high degree of non-compliance with the H & A ; S Regulations in South Africa.

This study attempts to sketch the degree of conformity safety within the industry, place cardinal issues lending to the consequences and do researched recommendations and solutions to the issue at manus.

Health and safety on site is an of import pattern of any edifice site. Even though wellness and safety is non a realized disbursal or shown in a accomplished merchandise construction it contributes an tremendous function in the existent advancement. Health and safety is to some grade an inert factor in the building issue.

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“ Health and safety on site should be a nucleus demand of concern activity, non an inconvenient ‘add-on ‘ . As far as I am concerned, those who can non pull off wellness and safety can non pull off! We need to make a positive wellness and safety civilization which sees concern travel beyond making the statutory lower limit ” ( Bill Callaghan, June 2000 )

Safety ought to be treated badly because it deals specifically with the persons that power the undertakings we as professionals drive.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Fundamental law

The fundamental law is the highest jurisprudence of our state and is supersedes all other Torahs. It entrenches the right of its citizens to a healthy and safe working environment overall.

Chapter 2 – Bill of Rights ( Section 24 )

“ Environment – Everyone has the right –

To an environment that is non harmful to their wellness or wellbeing ; and

To hold the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future coevalss, through sensible legislative and other steps that –

Prevent pollution and ecological debasement

Promote preservation ; and

Secure ecologically sustainable development and the usage of natural resources while advancing justifiable economic and societal development. ”

Health and safety is accordingly both a legal duty and constitutional right. These Torahs can non be deemed as a load but instead a factor which if right enforced, influences a positive patterned advance of the building procedure and humanity as a whole by puting major influence on the environment, protecting it and the people within the system.

Occupational wellness and safety act

The primary Acts that impact on building H & A ; S in South Africa are the Occupational Health and Safety Act No. 85 of 1993 ( OH & A ; S Act ) and the complementary Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 of 1993 ( COID Act ) . The OH & A ; S Act replaced the old Machinery and Occupational Safety Act No. 6 of 1983, the Machinery and Occupational Safety Amendment Act 40 of 1989, the Machinery and Occupational Safety Amendment Act No. 97 of 1991 and the announcement thereof reflected the increased accent on wellness.

The OHS Act is governed by the South African legal system and is implemented by ;

Civil Law – This compensates an employee for losingss incurred in the event of sick wellness, accidents and decease. Compensation is received for the loss of an income, hurting or any other incommodiousness.

Condemnable Law – This serves a large plenty ground to implement the OHS Act. Companies or persons that transgress the jurisprudence are either fined or imprisoned and in some instances both are non un

Section 7 of the Construction Regulations ( 2003 ) requires that:

( 7 ) aˆ¦ no contractor shall let or allow any employee to come in any site, unless such individual has undergone wellness and safety initiation developing refering to the jeopardies prevalent on the site at the clip of entry.

( 9 ) Every employee on site shall:

( a ) Beryllium in ownership of cogent evidence of the wellness and safety initiation developing aˆ¦ issued by a competent individual of the contractor prior to the beginning of building work ; and

( B ) Carry the cogent evidence contemplated in paragraph

( a ) For the continuance of that undertaking or for the period that the employee will be on the building site.

From the above infusion from the occupational wellness and safety act we can see that the jurisprudence has a really active function in wellness and safety on site. If wellness and safety is non adhered on site it is a condemnable offense. Although this is true many companies have taken this really lightly and deemed this as a lighter offense. The penalty and punishments should be emphasized more in order for companies to acquire the message and get down practising safer working conditions even if they are forced to.

The accent on this study though is non on coercing Acts of the Apostless or principals on companies, instead demoing that conformity has both short term and long term benefits

Accident Frequency

Numerous cases are reported yearly throughout the universe of tragic accidents associating to building industry and can be narrowed down to the followers:

Survey of 268 incidents

While bearing in head the earnestness of the reviewed consequences above, I draw relation to the bird theory. The Bird theory suggests the followers:

Cost of Accidents

Accidents are more dearly-won than most people recognize because of the unobserved costs. Some costs are more obvious than others and are regarded as direct costs. These are what prevarication on the surface and are clearly seeable to a mercenary spectator. Direct cost can be in the signifier of Workmen ‘s Compensation which covers medical measures and insurance payments for an ailment or injured worker

There are besides costs to learn and counterbalance a replacement worker, fix damaged belongings, look into the accident and use remedial action, and to continue insurance coverage. Even less obvious are the costs related to programme holds, added administrative clip, lowered morale, increased non-attendance, and poorer client dealingss. These are the indirect costs which merely become evident when we take a deeper expression.

The cost of accidents, and the part of the direct and indirect costs, varies significantly in the literature, but recent research conducted in the United Kingdom ( UK ) by the Health & A ; Safety Executive ( HSE ) determined indirect costs to be 11 times the direct costs. Research conducted in South Africa determined the indirect costs to be 14.2 times the direct costs.

Research conducted in the USA indicates the entire cost of accidents to represent inter alia, 6.5 % of the value of completed construction14, and UK about 8.5 % of stamp monetary value. Research in South Africa estimated the entire cost of accidents to around 5 % of the value of completed building.

Notwithstanding the uncertainness in quantifying the cost of accidents, it must be recognised that finally it is the clients that incur the cost as the cost of accidents is included in contractors ‘ cost constructions.

In add-on to the cost of accidents, there is besides a cost of implementing H & A ; S systems within a company which it is estimated to be between 0.5 % and 3 % of entire undertaking cost. This confirms the international literature which indicates that the entire cost of accidents exceeds the cost of H & A ; S. H & A ; S must, nevertheless, be seen as an enabler and as the accelerator for enhanced public presentation relation to cost, the environment, productiveness, quality, and agenda.

International literature indicates that the entire cost of accidents exceeds the cost of H & A ; S and hence, H & A ; S is in kernel a net income Centre. Furthermore, the concern instance for H & A ; S is enhanced by the fact that H & A ; S is the accelerator for enhanced public presentation relation to cost, the environment, productiveness, quality, and agenda.

Site ‘s patterns and safety methods

The best manner to look for solution to a job you are holding is to look at others holding the same job, covering with the same job or in the same state of affairs and avoiding the job. We are traveling to look at some patterns on site and how they deal with issues, or what issues they have on site.

New Employee Orientation

New employees should prosecute in a new employee orientation. The measure of information in these orientations and in the first few yearss of any occupation, this preparation should be divided down two parts that includes, some subjects such as, basic companies safety policies and on site safety jeopardies and principals.

Safety Training/Meetings

Safety meetings and preparation should be carried out on a day-to-day, hebdomadal or even monthly period. Depending on the undertaking and the accidents menaces on this undertaking, informal meetings, and preparation can be in multiple times during the twenty-four hours to enable communicating between supervisors and the workers executing the occupations.

Job-Specific Safety Training

A new employee orientation, employees who switch occupations, occupation standards, or whose safety actions need development should hold extra safety pattern that includes good work techniques, the wellness, care and personal protective equipment, hazards associated with any endangering stuff used in the sweetening of the occupation, and the actions of these patterns

Supervisory Training

Supervisors set the path in any work environment. A supervisor who seeks employees ‘ safety will accomplish safety record than one that does non. To be effectual, supervisors must go to certain preparation that emphasizes the unifying of the company ‘s committedness to a safe working environment, reviews the company ‘s safety policies, carry oning regular safety meetings, on how to manage insecure working conditions, accident probe procedure, coaching, and reding. The supervisor is ever on the forepart of the concern every twenty-four hours and plays a larger function in any company ‘s success and safety. ( Extract and PARTS merely taken of ehow safety tips )

SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE Notes

Safety Spectacless

It is of extreme importance to protect your eyes when working as it could damage eyesight and vision. This may look like it is non necessary all the clip, nevertheless when any object touches the oculus it can do terrible troubles in sight. Sawdust, dust and any other common stuff dust can travel to the dorsum of your orb and make an infection which may halt work. Metallic fibers from boring or cutting holes in metal as can easy go embedded in the oculus and could go rather painful.

Safety Harnesss

Safety harnesses ties a worker on high edifices so that they may work at those highs without being in fright of falling off. They are used for working on staging, and others like tall walls or edifices roofs and lifts. The autumn is non every bit lifelessly as what you fall on. A safety harness will guarantee that the worker to hang from the tie down alternatively of traveling down and can travel upward or downward to make at a safer place.

Safety Boots

A good quality brace of safety boots is cardinal for balance on site when working. The boots should hold a soft gum elastic sole for good clasp belongingss and have a tantrum to let easy smooth motion. It is best to possess boots with good electrical protection with, H2O and oil opposition to avoid slipping, and a steel toe for protection.

Substance Maltreatment

Many of the work force are injured and killed to imbibing and drug maltreatment on site. A strong nothing tolerance should be put in topographic point and followed to by every employee. Some employees think it ‘s All right to hold a drink at tiffin interruptions and travel back to work because it ‘s merely a “ bombilation, ” but when if this employee is working with heavy machinery it could do an hurt really easy Alcohol and drugs in a workplace leads to bad determinations and inaccurate judgements which lead to hurts on site.

The Occupational Safety and Health representative is the leader in any building and all the employment safety. They put greater safety and reviews in order to maintain all employees protected from hurts caused to them and to others around them. These actions are helpful with cut downing accidents on site to employees and fellow employees ; this in bend produces a safer working site.

Infusions Taken in concurrence with safety representatives and from

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.comwww.ehow.com ( on safety affair )

RESEARCH METHODOLGY

Data Collection

During the period of 2012 it was decided that a study would be conducted telephonically among 10 contractors with CIDB rating degree 6 – 9 operating in the Durban country. Due to the confidentiality of these contractors their personal information is withheld. The study ( please see Appendix ) consists of 20 inquiries, covering such countries as “ workplace precedences ” , “ safety and communicating at the employee ‘s current or most recent workplace ” . Survey design was based on the usage of the telephone to reach respondents, which was done by the research worker. Calls were made Monday to Fridays, get downing June 3, 2012, from 9:00 a.m.to 4:00 p.m. Telephoning ended on August 31, 2012. Completed study signifiers were so checked and edited prior to responses being inputted.

Datas Analysis

About 2/3 ‘s of respondents were employees with about equal Numberss ( about 17 % ) being either “ direction ” or “ owner/operators ” .

Approximately 6 out of 10 respondents were female and the balance, 4 out of 10, male.

Approximately 31 % of respondents were 15 to 34 old ages old ; 54 % were 35 to 54 old ages old ; and 15.3 % were 55 and older.

Approximately 11 % of respondents worked on their ain ; 41 % worked with between 2 to 10 workers ;

17 % worked with between 11to 21 workers ; and about 31 % worked at a workplace with more than 21 workers. .

3 out of 4 respondents worked full-time, and merely over 4 out of 5 worked twelvemonth unit of ammunition.

About 3 out of 5 ( 58.6 % ) of respondents reported holding worked 20+ old ages.

Experience at the most recent workplace is comparatively unchanged except for the most experient class, 21+ old ages which, at 7.9 % , is less than half the other classs.

Workplace precedences:

“ A safe workplace ” was rated as a higher precedence in the workplace than either “ Keeping the costs down ” or “ Keeping a high degree of production ” with “ Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service ” rated as the top workplace precedence. There was small difference between respondent ‘s evaluations for “ entire work experience ” and their evaluations for “ most recent work experience ” .

“ A safe workplace ” was rated as a higher precedence in the workplace than either “ Keeping the costs down ” or “ Keeping a high degree of production ” with “ Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service ” rated as the top workplace precedence for directors, immediate supervisors and fellow workers. The lone alteration in precedence forms was in “ Keeping costs down ” , which respondents thought both directors and immediate supervisors considered more of import than “ Keeping a high degree of production ” .

Safety in the workplace:

Merely over half of the respondents ( 55 % ) said their workplace had safety values, and of those respondents merely under 3/4 ‘s thought the safety values were up-to-date, good understood and had an of import influence on safety.

Merely over 4 out of 10 respondents thought that directors were held accountable, either to the full or in a general manner, for forestalling hurts and safety incidents in their country. 2 out of 10 respondents did non cognize the extent to which directors were accountable.

One-half of the respondents ( 50 % ) said they had received from “ extended ” to “ some preparation ” in safety and occupational wellness in the last 2 old ages.

Communication and Safety:

Slightly under half of the respondents ( 46.6 % ) said safety meetings were held in their workplace. And of those, merely over 45 % said meetings were held on a monthly footing.

Of those respondents who said there were safety meetings in their workplace, about 2/3 ‘s attended the meetings on a regular basis.

About 6 out of 10 respondents rated the quality and effectivity of the safety meetings at their workplace as either “ Excellent ” or “ Good ” .

Merely over 7 out of 10 ( 72.2 % ) of respondents rated the quality of the safety regulations at their workplace as either “ Excellent ” , “ Good ” or “ Satisfactory ” .

About 8 out of 10 ( 79.4 % ) of respondents rated the extent to which the safety regulations in their workplace were obeyed as either “ by and large obeyed ” , to “ … obeyed without exclusion ” .

Merely over 1 out of 3 ( 34.8 % ) of respondents chose “ Do n’t cognize ” when asked their sentiment about how disciplinary action was used in their workplace for misdemeanors of safety regulations or patterns.

Merely over 1 out of 3 ( 36.7 % ) of respondents felt that “ all hurts and safety incidents in their workplace were investigated, reported and action taken ” .

Approximately 1 in 4 respondents said that they had taken clip off work due to an hurt or disablement.

Of those respondents who said they had taken clip off work due to an hurt or disablement, merely over half ( 50.9 % ) had taken off from 1 to 15 yearss.

Merely over 1 in 5 respondents ( 22.2 % ) said that they had taken clip off work in the last twelvemonth due to an hurt or disablement.

Of those respondents who said they had taken clip off work in the last twelvemonth due to an hurt or disablement, about 6 out of 10 ( 58.4 % ) had taken off from 1 to 15 yearss

4 out of 10 respondents opted to have a transcript of the study consequences.

Decision

There are many points that can be discussed in this decision from the informations and information we have been presented, but I am traveling to associate my decision to my consequences, How can we utilize these tools from the consequences to assist us develop solutions?

A major subscriber to the end point and came up once more and once more is Torahs and the breakage of Torahs. The occupational wellness and safety act should be the footing of any company and followed to the tee, yet it is seen as distractions and unimportant facets that take up clip. These Acts of the Apostless promote the employment of qualified safety personal on site. For these companies it is seen as an excess wage and disbursal.

These personal with these checklist and templets could better the safety of sites, and in bend cut down accidents. What building companies fail to recognize is that these accidents are more expensive than the existent bar used to halt it. The mentality is that it is a concern and that maximal net income should be the chief and lone end, which partially right yet at what cost should it come at?

This comes down to the point of moralss and ethical motives. Are we selling our moralss and ethical motives for a few vaulting horses? We are playing with lives, we should halt handling these employees as people portion of the working concatenation and instead handle them like a human that they are. The job is that the cats on top bash non recognize the life that the general workers on the site have to travel through. If they likely lived them life for a hebdomad they will likely sympathize and sympathise with them. Most of them have a difficult life and they at that place to gain them staff of life and butter and do the cat on the top rich at they own lives expense literally. Make these managers care about this? The bottom line is that workers on site should be treated as they ca n’t be replaced, because although on site they may be, at place they ca n’t. Once this attitude is adopted so the moralss cogwheels can get down working and get down working the motor for better safety patterns and happier and more productive staff on site.

Recommendation

The first and most of import one is that of the templets and checklists, these tools should be used in concurrence with a safety representative. These are mere guidelines of what to make before building, during building and after building. These tools constitute as portion of a planning factor besides.

Planning is of import on any site and although it is a solution on its ain, the tools developed by theses checklist and templets are in itself a manner of planning besides. This is the primary solution for this undertaking

Health and safety is non merely in pecuniary footings instead it is in programs, policies, programmes and a uninterrupted monitoring and rating procedure. We need to utilize these tools to assist pull off sites and finally increase the consciousness of wellness and safety on site.

A farther recommendation is to obey all the regulations and ordinances of the state more specifically in this study on wellness and safety. If greater mulcts and force per unit area were to be put on these companies sing these Torahs so they would be forced to implement them. These Torahs are non restraining and should non be seen as loads. This mentality needs to alter as non every disbursal is a waste of money go forthing the manus.

The concluding solution is something that can be talked in great lengths and it bring us to the of point moral moralss and sound human values. No one life is more of import than the following. Start sing workers safety on site the same as you would handle your senior direction.

Survey

Are you an:

a?? Owner/Operator a?? Manager a?? Supervisor a?? Employee a?? Other ( specify ) : a?? R

Are you:

a?? Male a?? Female

Which of the followers is your age class?

a?? 15-19 a?? 20-24 a?? 25-29 a?? 30-34 a?? 35-39 a?? 40-44 a?? 45-49 a?? 50-54 a?? 55-59 a?? 60+ a?? R

How many workers are/were employed at your most recent workplace? Check merely one reply.

a?? 2 to 5 workers a?? 6 to 10 workers a?? 11 to 21 workers a?? More than 21 workersa?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

Is/was your most recent work:

a?? Full-time a?? Part-time a?? Casual/Auxiliary a?? d/k a?? R

In entire, how long have you been working?

a?? less than 1 yr a?? 1 to 2 years a?? 3 to 5 years a?? 5 to 10 years a?? 10 to 20 years a?? 20+ year a?? d/k a?? R

I am traveling to read a list of 5 possible workplace precedences. I will so inquire you to believe about your entire work experience and state me by and large how of import each precedence was in the topographic point you worked. I will so inquire about your current workplace.

Looking at your entire work experience and utilizing a graduated table where “ 1 ” means “ most of import ” to “ 5 ” intending “ least of import ” , delight rank how of import you think the following precedences have been:

a?? Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service______________________

a?? Guaranting clients are happy with the service or merchandise they have purchased___________________________________________________________

a?? A safe workplace ___________________________________________________

a?? Keeping costs down _________________________________________________

a?? Keeping a high degree of production ___________________________________

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

Looking at your most recent workplace merely, how would you rank those same precedences:

a?? Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service _____________________

a?? Guaranting clients are happy with the service or merchandise they have purchased ___________________________________________________________________

a?? A safe workplace ___________________________________________________

a?? Keeping costs down _________________________________________________

a?? Keeping a high degree of production ___________________________________

a?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

Looking at the same points and evaluation graduated table, in your most recent workplace how do you believe:

your fellow workers would rank them/would have ranked them?

a?? Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service _____________________

a?? Guaranting clients are happy with the service or merchandise they have purchased ___________________________________________________________________

a?? A safe workplace ___________________________________________________

a?? Keeping costs down _________________________________________________

a?? Keeping a high degree of production ___________________________________

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

your immediate supervisor would rank them/would have ranked them?

a?? Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service _____________________

a?? Guaranting clients are happy with the service or merchandise

they have purchased __________________________________________________

a?? A safe workplace ___________________________________________________

a?? Keeping costs down _________________________________________________

a?? Keeping a high degree of production ___________________________________

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

the direction in general would rank them/would have ranked them?

a?? Producing a quality merchandise or supplying quality service _____________________

a?? Guaranting clients are happy with the service or merchandise they have purchased ___________________________________________________________________

a?? A safe workplace ___________________________________________________

a?? Keeping costs down _________________________________________________

a?? Keeping a high degree of production ___________________________________

n/a a?? d/k a?? R

Does/did your workplace have good established, written safety values – sometimes called beliefs and rules? “ Written ” means readily available in a papers, posted on the bulletin board, etc. Check merely one reply.

a?? yes

a?? no

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

Which of the undermentioned statements do you believe best describes those values:

a?? We have safety values and they are up-to-date, good understood and have an of import influence on safety.

a?? We have safety values and they have some influence on safety.

a?? We have safety values but they are non used much and they have small influence on safety.

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

To what extent do you believe directors at your most recent workplace are/were held accountable for hurts and safety incidents in their countries? ( “ Manager ” includes such rubrics as supervisor, chief, overseer, squad leader, etc. ) in your workplace: Check merely one reply.

a?? Directors are/were held to the full accountable for forestalling hurts and incidents in their country.

a?? Directors are/were held accountable for forestalling hurts and incidents in their country but safety public presentation does non by and large affect their public presentation evaluation and wage.

a?? Directors are/were held accountable for hurts and safety incidents but merely in a general manner.

a?? Directors take/took some duty for hurts and incidents in their countries ; most hurts are attributed to single mistake, bad fortune or unfortunate fortunes.

a?? Injuries and incidents are/were about ever blamed on single mistake, bad fortune or unfortunate fortunes.

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

To what extent have you received developing in safety and occupational wellness in the last two old ages. Training includes both 1 ) formal preparation classs off from the occupation and 2 ) organized on-the-job preparation. Check merely one reply.

a?? Extensive preparation

a?? Considerable preparation

a?? Some preparation

a?? Little preparation

a?? No preparation

a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

Are/were safety meetings held in your workplace?

a?? no

a?? do n’t cognize

a?? Yes

How frequently? __________________________________________________________

a?? d/k a?? R

Do/did you attend the safety meetings on a regular basis?

a?? yes a?? no a?? d/k a?? R

How do/did you rate the quality and effectivity of the safety meetings? Please see 1 ) how good attended they are/were, 2 ) the content of the meetings and 3 ) the extent of engagement of people in developing and carry oning them.

a?? Excellent a?? Good a?? Satisfactory a?? Poor a?? Very hapless a?? d/k a?? R

Please see the quality of the safety regulations in your workplace. High quality regulations are up-to-date and clearly written. They are good understood by those making the work and assist them to make the occupation good and safely.

The quality of your safety regulations is/was: Check merely one reply.

a?? Excellent a?? Good a?? Satisfactory a?? Poor a?? Very hapless a?? n/a a?? d/k a?? R

To what extent are/were the safety regulations of your workplace obeyed? Check merely one reply.

a?? All safety regulations are/were obeyed without exclusion.

a?? People by and large obey/obeyed the safety regulations.

a?? The safety regulations are/were guidelines, sometimes followed, sometimes non.

a?? The safety regulations are/were frequently non obeyed.

a?? People pay/paid small attending to the safety regulations.

a?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

In your sentiment how is/was disciplinary action used in your workplace for misdemeanors to safety regulations or patterns. “ Infraction ” means interrupting a safety regulation or non following a standard pattern. Disciplinary action refers to the scope of actions, from a prophylactic conversation or warning through to more terrible action such as expiration. Check merely one reply.

a?? Disciplinary action, related to the earnestness of the misdemeanor, is/was taken for all safety misdemeanors.

a?? Disciplinary action is/was taken merely for serious safety misdemeanors.

a?? Disciplinary action for safety misdemeanors is/was applied randomly and inconsistently.

a?? Disciplinary action is/was rarely taken for safety misdemeanors.

a?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

To what extent are/were hurts, safety incidents ( near girls and the similar )

in your workplace investigated, reported and action taken? Check merely one reply.

a?? all are/were exhaustively investigated and the recommendations implemented.

a?? Most are/were investigated and most of the recommendations are implemented.

a?? many of the hurts and incidents are/were investigated and some of the recommendations are implemented.

a?? merely the most serious are/were investigated.

a?? Injuries and incidents are/were non normally investigated.

a?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

20.1 Have you of all time taken clip off work due to an hurt or disablement?

a?? Yes a?? no a?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

How much clip did you take off? _________________________________________

20.2 in the past twelvemonth, have you taken clip off work due to an hurt or disablement?

a?? yes a?? no a?? N/A a?? d/k a?? R

How much clip did you take off? _________________________________________

Title page

Recognition

Dedication

Abstraction

Table of Contentss

Introduction-introduction, job statement, research aim

Lit Review-intro, lit reappraisal

Methodology-Research attack and informations aggregation, information analysis, research restrictions

Consequences

Decision

Recommendation

Mentions and bibliography