The Disclosure Of Accounting Policies Accounting Essay

Accounting Standards are used as one of the chief compulsory regulative mechanisms for readying of all-purpose fiscal studies and subsequent audit of the same, in about all states of the universe. Accounting criterions are concerned with the system of measuring and revelation regulations for readying and presentation of fiscal statements. Accounting criterions are devised to supply utile information to different users of the fiscal statements, to such as stockholders, creditors, loaners, direction, investors, providers, rivals, research workers, regulative organic structures and society at big and so on.

The rapid growing of international trade and internationalisation of houses, the Developments of new communicating engineerings, the outgrowth of international competitory forces is unhinging the fiscal environment to a great extent. Under this planetary concern scenario, the occupants of the concern community are in severely demand of a common accounting linguistic communication that should be spoken by all of them across the Earth. A fiscal coverage system of planetary criterion is a pre-requisite for pulling foreign every bit good as present and prospective investors at place alike that should be achieved through harmonisation of accounting criterions. This resulted in the preparation of International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) .

Accounting criterions:


Accounting criterions are written paperss, policy paperss issued by adept accounting organic structure or by authorities or other regulative organic structure covering the facets of acknowledgment, measuring, intervention, presentation and revelation of accounting dealing in the fiscal statement. Accounting criterions in India are issued by the institute of hired comptrollers of India. ( ICAI )


Disclosure of Accounting Policies


Deals with the revelation of important accounting policies followed in preparing and showing fiscal statements


Cardinal Accounting Premises

Traveling Concern



Areas in Which Differing Accounting Policies are Encountered

a ) processs of depreciation:

aˆ? straight line process

aˆ? WDV process

( B ) redress of outgo throughout edifice

( degree Celsius ) Conversion or transmutation of foreign currency pieces

( vitamin D ) Evaluation of stock lists

( vitamin E ) Treatment of generousness

( degree Fahrenheit ) Evaluation of investings

( g ) redress of retirement advantages

( H ) Recognition of net income on long-run understandings

( I ) Evaluation of fixed assets

( J ) Treatment of contingent liabilities

Considerations in the Selection of Accounting Policies


Substance over Form


Disclosure of Accounting Policies

Proper and better comprehending of fiscal statements

revelation should model portion of the fiscal statements

Accounting policies should be disclosed in one topographic point.


Evaluation of stock lists


Determination of the value at which stock lists are carried in the fiscal statements until the related grosss are recognized.


Inventories are assets:

( a ) held for sale in the ordinary class of concern ;

( B ) in the procedure of production for such sale ; or

( degree Celsius ) in the signifier of stuffs or supplies to be consumed in the production procedure or in the rendition of services.

( vitamin D ) spare parts


This Standard should be applied in accounting for stock lists other than:

( a ) work in advancement originating under building contracts, including straight related service contracts ( see Accounting Standard ( AS ) 7, Construction Contracts ) ;

( B ) work in advancement arising in the ordinary class of concern of service suppliers ;

( degree Celsius ) portions, unsecured bonds and other fiscal instruments held as stock-in-trade ; and

( vitamin D ) manufacturers ‘ stock lists of farm animal, agricultural and forest merchandises, and mineral oils, ores and gases to the extent that they are measured at cyberspace realisable value in conformity with good established patterns in those industries.


Lower of cost or cyberspace realizable value


Determine cost of stock lists

Determine Net realizable value of stock lists

Compare the cost and NPV

Exclusions from the Cost of Inventories

( a ) unnatural sums of otiose stuffs, labor, or other production costs ;

( B ) storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production procedure prior to a farther production phase ;

( degree Celsius ) administrative operating expenses

( vitamin D ) merchandising and distribution costs.


( a ) the accounting policies adopted in mensurating stock lists, including the cost expression used ; and

( B ) the entire carrying sum of stock lists and its categorization appropriate to the endeavor.


Cash Flow Statements


trades with the proviso of information about the historical alterations in hard currency and hard currency equivalents of an endeavor by agencies of a hard currency flow statement which classifies hard currency flows during the period from operating, puting and funding activities.


Operating activities are the of import revenue-producing activities of an endeavor and activities other than puting or funding activities.

Investing activities chiefly trades with acquisition and disposal of long-run assets and other investings. It is non included in hard currency equivalents.

Financing activities are activities that trades with addition or lessening of the proprietors ‘ capital ( including penchant portion capital in the instance of a company ) and adoptions of the endeavor.

Reporting Cash Flows from Operating Activities

Direct method

Indirect method

Foreign Currency Cash Flows

Cash flows originating from minutess in a foreign currency should be recorded in an endeavor ‘s coverage currency by using to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the coverage currency and the foreign currency at the day of the month of the hard currency flow.

Extraordinary Items

The hard currency flows associated with extraordinary points should be classified as originating from operating, puting or funding activities as appropriate and individually disclosed.


An endeavor should unwrap, together with a commentary by direction, the sum of important hard currency and hard currency tantamount balances held by the endeavor that are non available for usage by it.


Eventualities and Events Happening After the Balance Sheet Date


Deals with

Eventualities: A sensible estimation of the sum of the resulting loss can be made. Contingent additions should non be recognized in the fiscal statements.

Events Happening after the Balance Sheet Date:

Assetss and liabilities should be adjusted for events happening after the balance sheet day of the month that provide extra grounds to help the appraisal of sums. Dividends stated to be in regard of the period covered by the fiscal statements, which are proposed or declared by the endeavor after the balance sheet day of the month but before blessing of the fiscal statements, should be adjusted.

Disclosure should be made in the study of the authorization of those events happening after the balance sheet day of the month


( a ) the nature of the eventuality ;

( B ) the uncertainnesss which may impact the future result ;

( degree Celsius ) an estimation of the fiscal consequence.


Net Net income or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies


to order the categorization and revelation of certain points in the statement of net income and loss so that all endeavors prepare and present such a statement on a unvarying footing. This enhances the comparison of the fiscal statements of an endeavor over clip and with the fiscal statements of other endeavors.


This Standard should be applied by an endeavor in presenting net income or loss from ordinary activities, extraordinary points and anterior period points in the statement of net income and loss, in accounting for alterations in accounting estimations, and in revelation of alterations in accounting policies.

Net Net income or Loss for the Period

All points of income and disbursal which are recognised in a period should be included in the finding of net net income or loss for the period unless an Accounting Standard requires or permits otherwise. The net net income or loss for the period comprises the undermentioned constituents, each of which should be disclosed on the face of the statement of net income and loss:

( a ) net income or loss from ordinary activities ; and

( B ) extraordinary points.

Extraordinary Items

Extraordinary points should be disclosed in the statement of net income and loss as a portion of net net income or loss for the period. The nature and the sum of each extraordinary point should be individually disclosed in the statement of net income and loss in a mode that its impact on current net income or loss can be perceived.

Net income or Loss from Ordinary Activities

When points of income and disbursal within net income or loss from ordinary activities are of such size, nature or incidence that their revelation is relevant to explicate the public presentation of the endeavor for the period, the nature and sum of such points should be disclosed individually.

Anterior Period Items

The nature and sum of anterior period points should be individually disclosed in the statement of net income and loss in a mode that their impact on the current net income or loss can be perceived.


Depreciation Accounting


This Standard trades with depreciation accounting and applies to all depreciable assets, except the undermentioned points:

( I ) woods, plantations and similar regenerative natural resources ;

( two ) blowing assets like oil Wellss, minerals, preies.

( three ) outgo on research and development ;

( four ) good will and other intangible assets ;

( V ) unrecorded stock.

This criterion besides does non use to set down unless it has a limited utile life for the endeavor.



Depreciable assets

Useful life

Depreciable sum


The depreciation methods used, the entire depreciation for the period for each category of assets, the gross sum of each category of depreciable assets and the related accrued depreciation are disclosed in the fiscal statements along with the revelation of other accounting policies. The depreciation rates or the utile lives of the assets are disclosed merely if they are different from the standard rates specified as per the legislative act.

In instance the depreciable assets are revalued, the proviso for depreciation is based on the revalued sum on the estimation of the staying utile life of such assets. In instance the reappraisal has a material consequence on the sum of depreciation, the same is disclosed individually in the twelvemonth in which reappraisal is carried out.

A alteration in the method of depreciation is treated as a alteration in an accounting policy and is disclosed consequently.


Construction contracts


To order the accounting intervention of gross and costs associated with building contracts.


This Standard should be applied in accounting for building contracts in the fiscal statements of contractors.


building contract

fixed monetary value contract

cost plus contract

Contract Gross

Contract Costss


An endeavor should unwrap:

( a ) the sum of contract gross recognised as gross in the period ;

( B ) the methods used to find the contract gross recognized in the period ; and

( degree Celsius ) the methods used to find the phase of completion of contracts in advancement.

An endeavor should unwrap the following for contracts in advancement at the coverage day of the month:

( a ) the aggregative sum of costs incurred and recognised net incomes ( less recognized losingss ) upto the coverage day of the month ;

( B ) the sum of progresss received ; and

( degree Celsius ) the sum of keepings

An endeavor should show:

( a ) the gross sum due from clients for contract work as an plus ; and

( B ) the gross sum due to clients for contract work as a liability.

AS- 9

Gross Recognition


trades with the footing for acknowledgment of gross in the statement of net income and loss of an endeavor. The Standard is concerned with the acknowledgment of gross originating in the class of the ordinary activities of the endeavor from

– the sale of goods,

– the rendition of services, and

– the usage by others of endeavor resources giving involvement, royalties and dividends.

This Standard does non cover with the undermentioned facets of gross acknowledgment to which particular considerations apply:

( I ) Gross originating from building contracts ;

( two ) Gross originating from never-never, lease understandings ;

( three ) Gross originating from authorities grants and other similar subsidies ;

( four ) Gross of insurance companies originating from insurance contracts.

Rendering of Servicess

Proportionate completion method

Completed service contract method

Gross Recognised

( I ) Interest: on a clip proportion footing taking into history the sum outstanding and the

rate applicable.

( two ) Royalties: on an accrual footing in conformity with the footings of the relevant understanding.

( three ) Dividends from investings in portions: when the proprietor ‘s right to have payment is established.


An endeavor should besides unwrap the fortunes in which gross acknowledgment has been postponed pending the declaration of important uncertainnesss.


Accounting for Fixed Assetss


These assets are divided into assorted types, such as land and edifices, works and machinery, vehicles, furniture and adjustments, good will, patents, trade Markss and designs.

This criterion does non cover with accounting for the undermentioned points on which depreciation is non provided.

Components of Cost

( I ) cost included in site readying ;

( two ) initial bringing and handling costs ;

( three ) installing cost, such as particular foundations for works ; and

( four ) professional fees, for illustration fees of designers and applied scientists.

Retirements and Disposals

In fiscal statements utilizing historical cost, additions or losingss originating on disposal of assets are recognized in the net income and loss statement. On antecedently revalued point of fixed plus which is disposed, the difference between net sale returns and the net book value is usually charged or credited to the net income and loss statement.


Fixed assets acquired on hire purchase footings are recorded at their hard currency value,

When an endeavor owns fixed assets jointly with others they are recorded at the original cost less accrued depreciation and written down value are stated in the balance sheet.

Where an endeavor purchases several assets for a amalgamate monetary value, it is valued at just footing.


( I ) The fixed assets gross and net book values at the beginning and terminal of an accounting period must province the add-ons, disposals, acquisitions and other motions made during the twelvemonth ;

( two ) outgo on fixed assets for building or acquisition ; and

( three ) the revalued sums alternatively of historical costs of fixed assets, the method used for calculating the revalued sums, the nature of indices used, the twelvemonth of any grasp made, and revelation of external valuer who was involved, for reappraisal of fixed assets.


The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Ratess


Decide which exchange rate to utilize and how to acknowledge in the fiscal statements the fiscal consequence of alterations in exchange rates.


This Standard should be applied:

( a ) in accounting for minutess in foreign currencies ; and

( B ) in interpreting the fiscal statements of foreign operations.

This Standard besides deals with accounting for foreign currency minutess in the nature of forward exchange contracts.1


At each balance sheet day of the month:

Foreign currency pecuniary points should be reported utilizing

the shutting rate.

Non-monetary points which are carried at historical Cost utilizing the exchange rate at the day of the month of the dealing.

Non-monetary points which are carried at just value should be reported utilizing the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Categorization of Foreign Operations

Built-in Foreign Operations

Non-integral Foreign Operations


An endeavor should unwrap:

( a ) the sum of exchange differences included in the net net income or loss for the period ; and

( B ) net exchange differences accumulated in foreign currency interlingual rendition modesty as a separate constituent of stockholders ‘ financess, and a rapprochement of the sum of differences in exchange rates at the gap and shutting day of the month of the period.

AS -12

Accounting for Government Grants


Deals with accounting for authorities grants. Government grants ( subsidies,

hard currency inducements, responsibility drawbacks, etc. )

This Standard does non cover with:

( I ) the particular jobs originating in accounting for authorities grants in

fiscal statements reflecting the effects of altering monetary values or in

auxiliary information of a similar nature ;

( two ) authorities aid other than in the signifier of authorities grants ;

( three ) authorities engagement in the ownership of the endeavor.

Accounting Treatment of Government Grants

Capital Approach

Income Approach


The followers should be disclosed:

the accounting policy

( two ) the methods of presentation in the fiscal statements ;

the nature and extent of authorities grants

( four ) grants of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate or free of cost.


Accounting for Investings


1. Accounting for investings

2. It does non cover with:

( a ) acknowledgment of involvement, dividends and leases earned

on investings which are covered by Accounting Standard 9 on

Gross Recognition ;

( B ) operating or finance rentals ;

( degree Celsius ) investings of retirement benefit programs and life insurance endeavors ; and

( vitamin D ) common financess and venture capital financess.

Categorization of Investings

current investings

long term investings

Transporting Amount of Investments

current investings are carried at the lower of cost and just value.

long term investings are carried at cost.

Difference in Transporting Sums of Investings

Any decrease and any reversals of such

decreases should be credited to the net income and loss statement.

Disposal of Investments

transporting sum minus cyberspace disposal returns should be credited to the net income and loss statement.


The undermentioned revelations in fiscal statements in relation to

investings are appropriate: –

( a ) the accounting policies

( B ) the sums included in income statement for:

( I ) involvement, dividends ( demoing individually dividends from subordinate

companies ) , and leases on investings demoing individually such income from long term and current investings.

Gross income should be stated, the sum of income revenue enhancement deducted at beginning being included under Advance Taxes Paid ;

( two ) net incomes and losingss on disposal of current investings and alterations in transporting sum of such investings ;

( three ) net incomes and losingss on disposal of long term investings and alterations in the transporting sum of such investings ;

( degree Celsius ) important limitations on the right of ownership, realisability of

investings or the remittal of income and returns of disposal ;

( vitamin D ) the aggregative sum of quoted and unquoted investings, giving

the sum market value of quoted investings ;

( vitamin E ) other revelations as specifically required by the relevant legislative act

regulating the endeavor.


Accounting for Amalgamations


Amalgamation may be either –

( a ) an merger in the nature of amalgamation, or

( B ) an merger in the nature of purchase.


The consideration for the merger should include any noncash

component at just value. In instance of issue of securities, the value fixed by

the statutory governments may be taken to be the just value.


The Pooling of Interests Method

The Purchase Method


For all mergers, the undermentioned revelations should be made in the first fiscal statements following the merger:

( a ) names and general nature of concern of the amalgamating companies ;

( B ) effectual day of the month of merger for accounting intents ;

( degree Celsius ) the method of accounting used to reflect the merger ; and

( vitamin D ) specifics of the strategy sanctioned under a legislative act.


Employee Benefits


To order the accounting and revelation for employee benefits. The Standard requires an endeavor to recognize:

( a ) a liability when an employee has provided service in exchange for employee benefits to be paid in the hereafter ; and

( B ) an disbursal when those economic benefits are consumed


1. This Standard should be applied by an employer in accounting for all employee benefits, except employee share-based payments1.

2. This Standard does non cover with accounting and coverage by

employee benefit programs.

3. Employee benefits

Short-run Employee Benefits

Benefits collectible within 12 months:

( a ) rewards, wages and societal security parts ;

( B ) short-run remunerated absences

( degree Celsius ) profit-sharing and fillips collectible

( vitamin D ) non-monetary benefits for current employees.

Post-employment Benefits

Post-employment benefits include:

( a ) retirement benefits, e.g. , tip and pension ; and

( B ) other benefits, e.g. , post-employment life insurance and postemployment medical attention.

Insured Benefits

An endeavor may pay insurance premiums to fund a postemployment

benefit program.

Recognition and Measurement

The endeavor should recognize the part collectible to a defined part program in exchange for that service:

as a liability after subtracting any part already paid.

( B ) as an disbursal, unless another Accounting Standard requires or permits the inclusion of the part in the cost of an plus.

Long-run Employee Benefit

( a ) long-run paid leave ;

( B ) jubilee benefits ;

( degree Celsius ) long-run disablement benefits ;

( vitamin D ) profit-sharing and fillips collectible 12 months or subsequently

( vitamin E ) deferred compensation paid 12 months or more after the terminal

of the period in which it is earned.

Recognition and Measurement

The sum recognised as a liability for other long-run employee

benefits should be the net sum of the undermentioned sums:

the present value of the defined benefit duty at the balance sheet day of the month.

minus the just value at the balance sheet day of the month of program assets ( if

any ) out of which the duties are to be settled straight.


Borrowing Costss


To order the accounting intervention for borrowing costs.

It does non cover with the existent or imputed cost of proprietors ‘ equity, including penchant portion capital non classified as a liability.

Borrowing costs may include:

( a ) involvement and committedness charges on bank adoptions and other short-run and long-run adoptions ;

( B ) amortization of price reductions or premiums associating to adoptions ;

( degree Celsius ) amortization of accessory costs incurred in connexion with the agreement of adoptions ;

( vitamin D ) finance charges in regard of assets acquired under finance rentals or under other similar agreements ; and

( vitamin E ) exchange differences originating from foreign currency adoptions to the extent that they are regarded as an accommodation to involvement costs.


Borrowing costs that are straight attributable to the acquisition, building or production of a qualifying plus should be capitalised as portion of the cost of that plus.

Other adoption costs should be recognised as an disbursal in the period in which they are incurred.

Beginning of Capitalization

The capitalization of borrowing costs as portion of the cost of a qualifying plus should get down when all the undermentioned conditions are satisfied:

( a ) outgo for the acquisition, building or production of a qualifying plus is being incurred ;

( B ) adoption costs are being incurred ; and

( degree Celsius ) activities that are necessary to fix the plus for its intended usage or sale are in advancement.


The fiscal statements should unwrap:

( a ) the accounting policy adopted for adoption costs ; and

( B ) the sum of adoption costs capitalised during the period.


Section Reporting


To set up rules for describing fiscal information, about the different types of merchandises and services an endeavor produces and the different geographical countries in which it operates.

Reportable Sections

A concern section or geographical section should be identified as a reportable section if:

( a ) its gross from gross revenues to external clients and from minutess with other sections is 10 per cent or more of the entire gross, external and internal, of all sections ; or

( B ) its section consequence, whether net income or loss, is 10 per cent or more

of –

( I ) the combined consequence of all sections in net income, or

( two ) the combined consequence of all sections in loss, whichever is greater in absolute sum ; or

( degree Celsius ) its section assets are 10 per cent or more of the entire assets of all


Primary Reporting Format

An endeavor should unwrap the followers for each reportable


( a ) section gross, classified into section gross from gross revenues to

external clients and section gross from minutess with

other sections ;

( B ) section consequence ;

( degree Celsius ) sum transporting sum of section assets ;

( vitamin D ) entire sum of section liabilities ;

( vitamin E ) sum cost incurred during the period to get section assets

that are expected to be used during more than one period ( touchable

and intangible fixed assets ) ;

( degree Fahrenheit ) entire sum of disbursal included in the section consequence for

depreciation and amortization in regard of section assets for the period ; and

( g ) entire sum of important non-cash disbursals, other than

depreciation and amortization in regard of section assets, that were included in section disbursal and, hence, deducted in

mensurating section consequence.


Related Party Disclosures


to set up demands for revelation of:

( a ) related party relationships ; and

( B ) minutess between a coverage endeavor and its related parties.


Related party

Related party dealing




If there have been minutess between related parties, during the

being of a related party relationship, the coverage endeavor should unwrap the followers:

( I ) the name of the transacting related party ;

( two ) a description of the relationship between the parties ;

( three ) a description of the nature of minutess ;

( four ) volume of the minutess either as an sum or as an appropriate proportion ;

( V ) any other elements of the related party minutess necessary for an apprehension of the fiscal statements ;

( six ) the sums or appropriate proportions of outstanding points

refering to related parties at the balance sheet day of the month and commissariats for dubious debts due from such parties at that day of the month ; and

( seven ) sums written off or written back in the period in regard of

debts due from or to related parties.




To order, for leaseholders and lease givers, the appropriate accounting policies and revelations in relation to finance rentals and operating rentals.


This Standard should be applied in accounting for all leases other than:

( a ) rental understandings to research for or utilize natural resources, such as oil, gas, lumber, metals and other mineral rights ; and

( B ) licensing understandings for points such as gesture image movies, picture recordings, dramas, manuscripts, patents and right of first publications ; and

( degree Celsius ) rental understandings to utilize lands.

Finance Leases

the leaseholder should recognize the rental as an plus and a liability. Such acknowledgment should be at an sum equal to the just value of the leased plus at the origin of the rental.

Operating Leases

Lease payments under an operating rental should be recognized as an disbursal in the statement of net income and loss on a consecutive line footing over the lease term unless another systematic footing is more representative of the clip form of the user ‘s benefit.


Net incomes Per Share


Financial ratio for measuring the province of market monetary value of portion.


Basic EPS

Diluted EPS


An endeavor should show basic and diluted net incomes per portion on the face of the statement of net income and loss for each category of equity portions that has a different right to portion in the net net income for the period.

Standard requires an endeavor to show basic and diluted net incomes per portion, even if the sums disclosed are negative


Basic net incomes per portion should be calculated by spliting the net net income or loss for the period attributable to equity stockholders by the leaden mean figure of equity portions outstanding during the period.

diluted net incomes per portion is calculated as the net net income or loss for the period attributable to equity stockholders and the leaden mean figure of portions outstanding during the period should be adjusted for the effects of all dilutive possible equity portions.


the sums used as the numerators in ciphering basic and diluted net incomes per portion, and a rapprochement of those sums to the net net income or loss for the period ;

the leaden mean figure of equity portions used as the denominator in ciphering basic and diluted net incomes per portion, and a rapprochement of these denominators to each other ; and

the nominal value of portions along with the net incomes per portion figures.


Amalgamate Financial Statements


A parent is an endeavor that has one or more subordinates

A subordinate is an endeavor that is controlled by another endeavor known as parent

Control can be exercised by buying 50 % of equity portions and voting rights

Or it is besides possible by commanding the composing of board of managers or the regulating organic structure


Amalgamate fiscal statements are prepared in the same format as followed by the parent company for the readying of its fiscal statements.

A parent and its subordinates should fix separate fiscal statements harmonizing to the legislative act.

The amalgamate fiscal statement made by a parent is in add-on to the separate fiscal statements


When the parent acquired control in subordinate as a impermanent investing and the control will be disposed in the close hereafter.

The subordinate operates under terrible long- term limitations and due to this transportation of financess to parent is significantly weakened

Consolidation Procedure

Fiscal statements of parent and subordinates should be combined and added line by line.


List of all subordinates.

Proportion of ownership involvement.

Nature of relationship between parent and subordinate whether direct control or control through subordinates.

Name of the subordinate of which coverage day of the months are different.

The ground for different accounting policies applied for the readying of amalgamate fiscal statements

If consolidation of a peculiar subordinate is non made harmonizing the prescribed accounting criterions, the ground for the same should be disclosed.


Accounting for Taxes on Income


To order accounting intervention for revenue enhancements on income.


Taxs on income include all domestic and foreign revenue enhancements which are based on nonexempt income.

Taxs that are collectible on distribution of dividends and other distributions made by the endeavor are to be excluded.


Tax disbursal for the period, consisting current revenue enhancement and deferred

revenue enhancement, should be included in the finding of the net net income or loss for

the period.


Current revenue enhancement should be measured at the sum expected to be paid to ( recovered from ) the revenue enhancement governments, utilizing the applicable revenue enhancement rates and revenue enhancement Torahs.

Deferred revenue enhancement assets and liabilities should be measured utilizing the revenue enhancement rates and revenue enhancement Torahs that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet day of the month.


An endeavor should countervail assets and liabilities stand foring current revenue enhancement if the endeavor:

( a ) has a lawfully enforceable right to put off the recognized sums ; and

( B ) intends to settle the plus and the liability on a net footing.


Accounting for Investments in Associates in Consolidated Financial Statements


The criterion explains the effects of investings in associates on the fiscal place and operating consequences of a group.









Investing in associates are to be listed and described as to the proportion of ownership involvement and, in instance of difference, the proportion of voting power held should be disclosed in the ‘Consolidated Financial Statements ‘ .

Investings in associates should be classified as long-run investings and disclosed individually in the amalgamate balance sheet.

The investor ‘s portion of the net incomes or losingss of such investings, should be disclosed individually in the amalgamate statement of net income and loss.

The investor ‘s portion of any extraordinary or anterior period points should besides be individually disclosed.


Discontinuing Operationss


To set up rules for describing information about stoping operations


1. This Standard applies to all stoping operations of an endeavor.

2. The demands related to hard currency flow statement contained in this Standard are applicable where an endeavor prepares and presents a hard currency flow statement.

Recognition and Measurement

To make up one’s mind as to when and how to recognize and mensurate the alterations in assets and liabilities and the gross, disbursals, additions, losingss and hard currency flows associating to a discontinuing operation.


When an endeavor disposes of assets or settees liabilities attributable to a discontinuing operation or enters into adhering understandings for the sale of such assets or the colony of such liabilities, it should include, in its fiscal statements, the following information when the events occur:

( a ) for any addition or loss that is recognised on the disposal of assets or colony of liabilities attributable to the discontinuing operation,

( I ) the sum of the pre-tax addition or loss and

( two ) income revenue enhancement disbursal associating to the addition or loss ; and

( B ) the net merchandising monetary value or scope of monetary values ( which is after subtracting expected disposal costs ) of those net assets for which the endeavor has entered into one or more binding sale understandings, the expected timing of reception of those hard currency flows and the transporting sum of those net assets on the balance sheet day of the month.


Interim Financial Reporting


To order the minimal content of an interim fiscal study and to order the rules for acknowledgment and measuring in a complete or condensed fiscal statements for an interim period. Seasonably and dependable interim fiscal coverage improves the ability of investors, creditors, and others to understand an endeavor ‘s capacity to bring forth net incomes and hard currency flows, its fiscal status and liquidness.


A complete set of fiscal statements usually includes:

( a ) balance sheet ;

( B ) statement of net income and loss ;

( degree Celsius ) hard currency flow statement ; and

( vitamin D ) notes including those associating to accounting policies and other statements and explanatory stuff that are an built-in portion of the fiscal statements.


In make up one’s minding how to recognize, step, classify, or unwrap an point for interim fiscal coverage intents, materiality should be assessed in relation to the interim period fiscal informations. In doing appraisals of materiality, it should be recognised that interim measurings may trust on estimations to a greater extent than measurings of one-year fiscal informations.


Intangible Assetss


To order the accounting intervention for intangible assets that are non dealt with specifically in another Accounting Standard. The Standard besides specifies how to mensurate the carrying sum of intangible assets and requires certain revelations about intangible assets.


This Standard should be applied by all endeavors in accounting for intangible assets, except:

( a ) intangible assets that are covered by another Accounting Standard ;

( B ) fiscal assets1 ;

( degree Celsius ) mineral rights and outgo on the geographic expedition for, or development and extraction of, minerals, oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources ; and

( vitamin D ) intangible assets originating in insurance endeavors from contracts with policyholders.

This Statement does non use to:

( a ) intangible assets held by an endeavor for sale in the ordinary class of concern ( referred to AS 2, Valuation of Inventories, and AS 7, Construction Contracts ) ;

( B ) deferred revenue enhancement assets

( degree Celsius ) leases that autumn within the range of AS 19, Leases ; and

( vitamin D ) good will originating on an merger and good will originating on consolidation.

Recognition and Initial Measurement

An intangible plus should be recognised if, and merely if:

( a ) it is likely that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the plus will flux to the endeavor ; and

( B ) the cost of the plus can be measured faithfully.


The fiscal statements should unwrap the followers for each category of intangible assets, separating between internally generated intangible assets and other intangible assets:

( a ) the utile lives or the amortization rates used ;

( B ) the amortization methods used ;

( degree Celsius ) the gross carrying sum and the accumulated amortisation ( aggregated with accrued damage losingss ) at the beginning and terminal of the period ;

( vitamin D ) a rapprochement of the transporting sum at the beginning and terminal of the period screening:

( I ) add-ons, bespeaking individually those from internal development and through merger ;

( two ) retirements and disposals ;

( three ) damage losingss recognised in the statement of net income and loss during the period ( if any ) ;

( four ) damage losingss reversed in the statement of net income and loss during the period ( if any ) ;

( V ) amortization recognised during the period ; and

( six ) other alterations in the carrying sum during the period.


Fiscal Coverage of Interest in Joint Venture


Joint venture is defined as a contractual agreement whereby two or more parties carry an economic activity under articulation control

Control is the power to regulate the fiscal and runing policies of an economic activity so as to obtain benefit from such control

It is a contractually agreed sharing of control over the economic activities


Jointly controlled operation

Jointly controlled assets, and

Jointly controlled entities

Jointly Controlled Operation

When the joint venture is non a separate entity, the parties may transport out the joint venture activities side by side with their chief activity

This includes two or more venturers combine their operations and resources for their joint activity

Agreement will stipulate the net income sharing norms

Venturers may non keep separate histories

Jointly Controlled Assetss

Assetss are shared as per the understanding

This type of agreement does non necessitate a separate concern entity, company or partnership

Each venturer portions the disbursals harmonizing to their use

For illustration usage of oil pipe line

Jointly Controlled Entities

Formed as a separate entity

Joint control is exercised by the venturers over the separate economic entity

There is a contractual relationship

Separate accounting records are maintained

Each venturer is entitled to portion the net incomes and losingss of the jointly controlled entity

In Consolidated Financial Statements

Then the involvement in the jointly controlled entity should be reported as per the proportionate consolidation

Proportionate consolidated balance sheet of the venturer includes its portion of assets and liabilities in the jointly controlled entity

Proportionate amalgamate net income and loss history of the venturer includes its portion of income and disbursals in a jointly controlled entity


Damage of assets


Equally per As 28 plus is said to be impaired when the transporting sum of the plus is more than its recoverable sum

Recoverable Sum

Is higher of net merchandising monetary value and value in usage

Net merchandising monetary value is the sum gettable from the sale of an plus less cost of disposal

Beginnings of roll uping the net merchandising monetary value are adhering sale understanding, active market and best estimation based on information

Value in Use

Value in usage of an plus is the present value of estimated future hard currency flows originating from the usage of plus + Scrap value at the terminal of its utile life

Discount rate is applied to cipher the present value of estimated hard currency flows

Indications About Damage

External Indications:

Asset value has declined

Due to alter in engineering, market conditions, legal ordinances, there is an inauspicious consequence on the endeavor

Interest rate has increased, or

Tax return on investing has increased

Internal Indications:

Obsolescence or physical harm of an plus

Significant alterations in the use of plus

Significant alterations in the mode in which the plus is expected to be used

History of continued plus losingss

History of continued hard currency flow losingss, and

History of continued budgeted losingss


Commissariats, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assetss


To guarantee that appropriate acknowledgment standards and measuring bases are applied to commissariats and contingent liabilities and that sufficient information is disclosed in the notes to the fiscal statements to enable users to understand their nature, timing and sum.


This Standard should be applied in accounting for commissariats and contingent liabilities and in covering with contingent assets, except:

( a ) those ensuing from fiscal instruments1 that are carried at just value ;

( B ) those ensuing from executory contracts, except where the contract is burdensome ;

( degree Celsius ) those originating in insurance endeavors from contracts with policyholders ; and

( vitamin D ) those covered by another Accounting Standard.

Changes in Commissariats

Commissariats should be reviewed at each balance sheet day of the month and adjusted to reflect the current best estimation. If it is no longer likely that an escape of resources incarnating economic benefits will be required to settle the duty, the proviso should be reversed.


For each category of proviso, an endeavor should unwrap:

( a ) the transporting sum at the beginning and terminal of the period ;

( B ) extra commissariats made in the period, including additions to bing commissariats ;

( degree Celsius ) sums used ( i.e. incurred and charged against the proviso ) during the period ; and

( vitamin D ) unused sums reversed during the period.

An endeavor should unwrap the followers for each category of proviso:

( a ) a brief description of the nature of the duty and the expected timing of any resulting escapes of economic benefits ;

( B ) an indicant of the uncertainnesss about those escapes. Where necessary to supply equal information, an endeavor should unwrap the major premises made refering future events,

as addressed in paragraph 41 ; and

( degree Celsius ) the sum of any expected reimbursement, saying the sum of any plus that has been recognised for that expected reimbursement.


Fiscal Instruments Presentation


To all commercial, industrial and concern entities other than little and average sized entities

It is recommendatory for an initial period of two old ages on or after 1-4-2009

It is compulsory for the accounting period get downing on or after 1-4-2011


Showing fiscal instruments as liabilities or equity

Offseting fiscal assets and fiscal liabilities

Compound fiscal instruments

Fiscal Liabilitiess

Requires a debitor to do a payment, or payments to a creditor in fortunes specified in a contract between them, or

Specifies between the two parties certain rights or duties, the nature of which requires them to be treated as fiscal

Applicability to fiscal instrument

This accounting criterion is applicable to all fiscal instruments both recognized and unrecognized, except for the followers

Interest in subordinates, associates and joint ventures accounted for under As 21

Employees benefits

Insurance contracts

Contracts or duties under portion based payment

Prescribed Presentation

Debt- equity categorization

Compound fiscal instruments

Treasury portions

Interest, dividend, loss and additions, and

Offseting of a fiscal plus and a fiscal liability

Treasury Shares

When an entity re- acquires its ain equity instruments in the bargain back procedure, so the portions therefore bought are termed as exchequer shares- No addition or loss should be recognized in statement of net income and loss with respect to buy, sale issue or cancellation of an entity ‘s ain equity instruments

Consolidation Techniques

1.Can be loosely classified into two

Gross or line by line consolidation, and

Net Consolidation

2.Net Consolidation is subdivided into two

One line or Equity, and

Pro rata or Proportional

International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS )


International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) is a set of accounting criterions developed by an independent, not-for-profit organisation called the International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) . International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) refer to a comprehensive, high quality set of accounting criterions and readings used in the readying of fiscal statements. IFRS are considered a principles-based set of criterions in that they set up wide regulations with greater accent on reading and the usage of judgement, instead than trust on specific “ bright-lines. ” The end of IFRS is to supply a planetary model for how public companies prepare and unwrap their fiscal statements. IFRS provides general counsel for the readying of fiscal statements, instead than puting regulations for industry-specific reporting.A

Many of the criterions organizing portion of IFRS are known by the older name of International Accounting Standards ( IAS ) . IAS were issued between 1973 and 2000 by the International Accounting Standards Committee ( IASC ) . The Standing Interpretations Committee ( SIC ) , the IASC ‘s interpretative organic structure formed in 1997, developed readings of IAS to be applied where the criterions were soundless or ill-defined. The readings were referred to as SICs. Having an international criterion is particularly of import for big companies that have subordinates in different states.

Adopting a individual set of global criterions will simplify accounting processs by leting a company to utilize one coverage linguistic communication throughout. A individual criterion will besides supply investors and hearers with a cohesive position of finances.A IFRS is used in many parts of the universe, including the European Union, Hong Kong, Australia, Malaysia, Pakistan, GCC states, Russia, South Africa, Singapore and Turkey. As in August, 2008, more than 110 states around the universe, including all of Europe, presently require or permit IFRS coverage. Approximately 85 of those states require IFRS coverage for all domestic listed companies.


First-time acceptance of IFRS


An entity following IFRS for the first clip from the usual National GAAP should follow with the criterion. It applies to an entity ‘s first IFRS fiscal statements and the interim studies presented under IAS 34, ‘Interim fiscal coverage ‘ , that are portion of that period.


The optional freedoms relate to:

concern combinations

deemed cost

employee benefits

cumulative interlingual rendition differences

compound fiscal instruments

assets and liabilities of subordinates, associates and joint ventures

appellation of antecedently recognized fiscal instruments

share-based payment minutess

just value measuring of fiscal assets or fiscal liabilities at initial acknowledgment


service grant agreements

adoption costs

investings in subordinates, jointly controlled entities and associates ;

transportations of assets from client ;

snuff outing fiscal liabilities with equity instruments

Severe hyperinflation.

Exceptions which are compulsory

The undermentioned exclusions are compulsory, non optional:

hedge accounting ;

estimations ; and

Non-controlling involvements.

Comparative information is prepared and presented on the footing of IFRS. Almost all accommodations originating from the first-time application of IFRS are against opening maintained net incomes of the first period that is presented on an IFRS footing.


Share-based payment


It applies to all share-based payment agreements


A share-based payment agreement is defined as: “ an understanding between the entity ( or another group entity or any stockholder of any group entity ) and another party ( including an employee ) that entitles the other party to have:

( a ) Cash or other assets of the entity for sums that are based on the monetary value ( or value ) of equity instruments ( including portions or portion options ) of the entity or another group entity, or

( B ) Equity instruments ( including portions or portion options ) of the entity or another group entity. ”


For equity settled share-based minutess, goods and services received and the corresponding addition in equity is measured

at the just value of the goods and services received. If the just value of the goods and services can non be estimated faithfully, so the value is measured with mention to the just value of the equity instruments granted. Different rating techniques may be applied.


Recognise as an disbursal over the vesting period. Goods and services in a share-based payment dealing are recognised when goods are received or as services are rendered. A corresponding addition in equity is recognised if goods and services were received in an equity-settled share-based payment dealing or a liability if these were acquired in a cash-settled share-based payment dealing.


Business combinations

The pooling of involvements and purchase method

All concern combinations, other than those between entities under common control, are accounted utilizing the purchase method. An acquirer is identified for all concern combinations, which is the entity that obtains control of the other uniting entity. Pooling of involvement to record concern combinations within the range of IFRS 3 is prohibited.

non-controlling involvement

At the clip of acquisition, an entity may elect to mensurate, on a dealing by dealing footing, the non-controlling involvement at ( a ) just value or ( B ) the

non-controlling involvement ‘s proportionate portion of the just value of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree.

Goodwill measuring

Measured as the difference between:

aˆ? the sum of ( a ) the acquisition- day of the month just value of the consideration

transferred ; ( B ) the sum of any non-controlling involvement and ( degree Celsius ) in

a concern combination achieved in phases, the acquisition-date carnival value

of the acquirer ‘s antecedently held equity involvement in the acquiree ; and

aˆ? the cyberspace of the acquisition-date just values of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. If the above difference is negative, the ensuing addition is recognised as a deal purchase in net income or loss.

Subsequent measuring of good will

Goodwill is non amortised but tested for damage on an one-year footing or

more often if events or alterations in fortunes indicate damage

Contingent considerations

Consideration for the acquisition includes the acquisition-date just value of contingent consideration. Changes to contingent consideration ensuing from events after the terminal of the coverage period are recognized in net income or loss.

acquisition related costs

Acquisition related costs such as finder ‘s fee,

due diligence costs, etc. are accounted for

as disbursals in the period in which the costs

are incurred and the services are received.


Insurance contracts


Insurance contracts are contracts where an entity accepts important insurance hazard from another party ( the policyholder ) by holding to counterbalance the policyholder if the insured event adversely affects the policyholder.


Applicable to insurance and reinsurance contracts and to discretionary engagement characteristics in insurance contracts.


The insurance company is required at the terminal of each coverage period to do a liability adequateness trial to measure whether its recognized insurance liabilities are equal. If trial shows transporting sum of its liabilities are unequal, the lack is recognised in net income or loss


Entities should unwrap:

Information that identifies and explains the sums in its fiscal statements originating from insurance contracts.

Information that enables users of its fiscal statements to measure the nature and extent of hazards originating from insurance contracts.


Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations


Non-current assets to be disposed of are classified as held for sale when the plus is available for immediate sale and the sale is extremely likely. Depreciation ceases on the day of the month when the assets are classified as held for sale. Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of its transporting value and just value less costs to sell.


An operation is classified as discontinued when it has either been disposed of or is classified as held for sale


Extractive industries


Exploration for and rating of mineral resources ‘ , addresses the fiscal coverage for the geographic expedition for and rating of mineral resources. It does non turn to other facets of accounting by entities engaged in the geographic expedition for and rating of mineral militias ( such as activities before an entity has acquired the legal right to research or after the proficient feasibleness and commercial viability to pull out resources have been demonstrated ) . Activities outside the range of IFRS 6 are accounted for harmonizing to the applicable criterions ( such as IAS 16, ‘Property, works and equipment ‘ , IAS 37, ‘Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets ‘ , and IAS 38, ‘Intangible assets ‘ . )


Exploration and rating assets are measured at cost or reappraisal less accrued amortization and impairment loss. An entity determines the policy stipulating which outgo is recognised

as geographic expedition and rating assets.


Fiscal Instruments: Disclosures


is to set up demands for all facets of accounting for fiscal instruments, including separating debt from equity, gauze, acknowledgment, derecognition, measuring, hedge accounting and revelation. The criterions ‘ Scopess are wide. The criterions cover all types of fiscal instrument, including receivables, payables, investings in bonds and portions, adoptions and derived functions. They besides apply to certain contracts to purchase or sell non-financial assets ( such as trade goods ) that can be net-settled in hard currency or another fiscal instrument.


The criterion prescribes the revelations that enable fiscal statement users to measure the significance of fiscal instruments

to an entity, the nature and extent of their hazards, and how the entity manages those hazards.


Section coverage

finding of


Operating sections are identified based on the fiscal information that is evaluated on a regular basis by the head runing determination shaper in make up one’s minding how to apportion resources and in measuring public presentation.


Segment net income or loss is reported on the same measurement footing as that used by the head runing determination shaper. There is no definition of section gross, section disbursal, section consequence, and section plus or section liability. Requires rapprochement of section public presentation steps, and section assets and liabilities with the corresponding sums reported in the fiscal statements.

entity broad


Requires revelation of

( a ) external grosss from each merchandise or service ;

( B ) grosss from clients in the state of legal residence

and from foreign states ;

( degree Celsius ) geographical information on non-current assets located in the state of legal residence and foreign states. Information on major client including entire grosss from each major client is

disclosed if grosss from each client is 10 % or more of entire section grosss.