The information age, besides known as the digital age is a term that is been used to mention to the present twenty-four hours epoch. This name alludes to the planetary economic system ‘s displacement in focal point off from the production of physical goods ( the industrial age ) and toward the use of information. Progresss in cyberspace and other signifiers of digital engineering have opened up new channels and methods for online concern. They have besides led to a state of affairs where the same channels can be abused and misused. One of these signifiers of engineering maltreatment, which is going progressively prevailing these yearss, is the buccaneering of digital content ( Holsapple et al, 2008 )
The technological progresss in this field have changed life manners around the universe and have spawned new industries around the universe. The velocity at which information travels in the digital age has created avenues for other industries ( informat.org ) .
Every person comes across Piracy, which makes things easier for them to acquire, in footings of cost, velocity and handiness. Many organisations now have now adopted agencies of buccaneering because it extends their range faraway locations reshape occupations and work flows and deeply change the manner they conduct concern ( siia.net ) .
The subject of this undertaking is Software Piracy – A Case Study of Microsoft Corporation. In this paper, the writer shall take a speedy reappraisal of the Microsoft Corporation. The History, Structure and Organisation of Microsoft Corporation shall be looked into. Besides, the Company size and geographic coverage of Microsoft shall be analyzed. From this, we try to analyse the market size of Microsoft and reexamine its assorted merchandises. We besides highlight the Major Rivals of Microsoft Corporation in the Software Industry.
Besides in this paper, the construct of Piracy shall be analyzed. A brief history into the outgrowth of Piracy shall be looked into, and besides how Piracy has affected the package industry. Using Microsoft Corporation as a instance survey, the effects of buccaneering on the package industries shall be examined and besides the assorted ways that Microsoft uses to battle package buccaneering. The research worker shall besides seek expression at how much it has cost Microsoft to work out the issues of Piracy. After sing all these, the writer shall seek to proffer solutions to the job of Software Piracy.
For the methodological analysis, Research inquiries shall be outlined and the informations needed to reply the inquiries shall be analyzed. The assorted restraints and Limitation of this undertaking shall be analyzed and critically examined. The Hazard Analysis of the undertaking shall besides be detailed.
1.2 Problem Definition
Computers have brought many benefits to society, but they have besides created new societal jobs such as cyber offense, package larceny, computing machine capriciousness, and invasions of privateness, choping and the creative activity of viruses. In bend, these jobs pose ethical issues for the vernal calling of computer science, which has yet to develop solid codifications of moralss. This is particularly the instance with package larceny or buccaneering, a rampant happening and a contemporary version of the long-standing job of rational belongings larceny ( portal.acm.org ) .
Software is the set of instructions which tell a computing machine what to make. Without package, a computing machine is merely a useless piece of Si, metal and plastic. As the cost of computing machine hardware has declined, the importance of package has increased-software is where the action and money are these yearss. In fact, the entire universe market for package is now deserving in surplus of US $ 50 billion a twelvemonth ( bsa.org ) .
Partially as a consequence, copying computing machine plans, frequently referred to as package buccaneering has become a major growing industry in schools, colleges and computing machine nines. Young computing machine partisans run off extra plans for their friends or for re-sale – merely as one would do transcripts of picture cassette tapes or an article ( portal.acm.org ) . Software rental bureaus have mushroomed, with no inquiries asked about what clients do with the package one time they get it place. In commercialism, industry, instruction and besides authorities sections, there is lifting grounds of the mass copying of package bundles, frequently with the collusion of direction ( bsa.org ) . There are few persons who can truthfully state that they have ne’er used a plan for which the developer has non been decently rewarded. Software buccaneering is an endemic societal job which package sellers have strictly tried to battle ( Forester, 1990 ) .
1.3 Microsoft Corporation ( Company reappraisal )
Microsoft Corporation is a universe renowned company that is into development of assorted sorts of package. Most of Microsoft merchandises have become family merchandises used as criterions in different companies. Due to this, Microsoft organizes assorted enfranchisements which are used to prove expertness specifically in their trade name ( Microsoft.com ) . We would take a speedy expression at Microsoft History.
1.3.1 Brief History
Microsoft Corporation was founded on the 4th of April 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque.
To assist people and concerns throughout the universe recognize their full potency ( microsoft.com ) .
As a company, and as persons, Microsoft Corporation values unity, honestness, openness, personal excellence, constructive self-criticism, continual self-reformation, and common regard. They are committed to their clients and spouses and have a passion for engineering. They besides take on large challenges, and pride themselves on seeing them through. Microsoft Corporation keep themselves accountable to their clients, stockholders, spouses, and employees by honouring their committednesss, supplying consequences, and endeavoring for the highest quality ( Microsoft.com ) .
1.3.2 Board and Organization
1.3.3 Company Size and geographic coverage
1.3.4 Merchandise and Gross saless ( Market size )
Microsoft has five concern divisions which are:
Windows and Windowss live division
Server and tools
Online services division
Microsoft concern division
Entertainment and devices division ( Microsoft.com )
Although Microsoft is a strong force to think with, they besides have strong rivals which include:
- Apple Inc
- Google Inc
- Oracle Corporation
- IBM Software
- SAP AG
1.4 Purposes and Aims
This undertaking aims at happening out why package buccaneering exists and the effects of package buccaneering. The consequence of this undertaking can hence be used in replying some of the jobs of package buccaneering. The following have hence been outlined as the Aims of this undertaking.
- To cognize why Piracy exists
- To analyse the effects of Software buccaneering on the market
- To measure the cost of contending Piracy
- To proffer a solution to piracy – if possible
- To Help Companies fight Piracy
In order to accomplish those purposes, the writer intends to transport out the certain stairss as the aims. Therefore, the purposes of this undertaking shall be classified into two:
- To hold in-depth apprehension of the package market
- To cognize the effects of buccaneering on this market
- To give me certain accomplishments in understanding how to contend buccaneering
- To transport out a study of package market
- To understand the Microsoft environment
- To look at the assorted ways Microsoft has fought against buccaneering
- To proffer solutions to work outing package buccaneering
This chapter shall look into what is meant by package buccaneering. A brief history of package buccaneering shall be discussed and assorted definitions of package buccaneering shall be outlined based on different diaries and articles.
2.2 What is Piracy?
Harmonizing to UNESCO, “ Piracy includes the reproduction and distribution of transcripts of copyright-protected stuff, or the communicating to the populace and doing available of such stuff on online communicating webs, without the mandate of the right proprietor ( s ) where such mandate is required by jurisprudence. Piracy concerns different types of plants, including music, literature, movies, package, videogames, airing plans and signals ” ( portal.unesco.org )
2.3 A brief History into Software Piracy
Harmonizing to the ehow web site, “ before 1980 1 could freely copy computing machine plans and pirate without any legal branchings in a sense. The U.S. Patent Office recognized right of first publications on computing machine package, but merely on the compiled version, non the beginning codification. The patent office granted computing machine plans protection as a “ literary ” work, but as in a book you could non copyright peculiar words, merely the work as a whole. Testimony and lobbying by Microsoft laminitis Bill Gates during the late seventiess eventually led to statute law that started to protect package unity ” ( ehow.com ) .
2.4 Software Piracy
Although many definitions of package buccaneering exist, the term normally refers to some signifier of unauthorised copying of package ( Law & A ; Wong, 2005 ) . Piracy is defined as the unaccredited usage of package by consumers. It includes unauthorized copying of package, the buying of unauthorized package transcripts and the pattern of lading several machines with package licensed for usage on one machine merely ( Prasad & A ; Mahajan, 2003 ) . Software buccaneering harmonizing to Microsoft Corporation is the mis-licensing, unauthorised reproduction and illegal distribution of package, whether for concern or personal usage ( Microsoft.com ) .
Software buccaneering is a major section of the greater digital buccaneering phenomenon. Harmonizing to the Business Software Alliance ( BSA, 2007 ) , the estimated universe buccaneering rate for concern package applications entirely was 35 % in 2002, taking to losingss of about $ 40 billion. While it has been suggested that some of these figures may, in fact, be exaggerated ( see, for illustration, Hayes, 2006 ) , the cardinal statement still holds ; package buccaneering is a large sufficiency job to be taken earnestly ( bsa.org ) .
Software buccaneering occurs in many ways, including unauthorised combustion of Cadmiums, insouciant sharing among friends, or over webs. The quickly falling cost of peripherals such as Cadmiums and floppy phonograph record has made this job all the more prevailing ( Hinduja, 2001 ; Andres, 2006 ) . Another ground for the rapid spread of buccaneering is the easy entree to Internet bandwidth ( Peace et al. , 2003 ) . While the about prehistoric 300-bps modem would take over the Internet, and 9600-baud modems would take a small over a month, a 56.6-kbps theoretical account would be able to make that in a small under a hebdomad. The coming of broadband, nevertheless, has made this transportation possible in a affair of a few hours. It comes as no surprise that pirates relish broadband ( Craig & A ; Burnett, 2005 ) .
Governments, package companies, and the Business Software Alliance ( BSA ) are doing advancement in halting the illegal usage of package merchandises. But buccaneering remains a serious job in all states. These are the cardinal findings of the 6th one-year BSA-IDC survey of personal computing machine ( Personal computer ) package buccaneering around the universe:
2.4.1 Types of Software Piracy
A organic structure that Microsoft Corporation belongs to is called Software and Information Industry Association ( SIIA ) . The SIIA is involved in aggressive run against package and content buccaneering. Harmonizing to SIIA, the different types of package buccaneering are:
Soft-lifting occurs when a individual or an organisation buys a individual accredited transcript of a package plan and installs it onto several computing machines, in dispute of the footings of the licence understanding. Typical illustrations of soft-lifting include, supposed “ sharing ” of package with co-workers, friends and household and so put ining the package on place computing machines and laptops if non allowed to make so by the licence. “ In the corporate environment, soft-lifting has become the most common type of package buccaneering – and possibly, the easiest to catch ” ( siia.net )
* Hard-disk Loading
“ Difficult disc burden occurs when an person or company sells computing machines that have been preloaded with illegal transcripts of package ” ( siia.net ) This is frequently done by the seller as a manner to promote the consumer to purchase certain hardware.When one bargain or rents computing machines with preloaded package, the purchase certification and contract with the seller must demo which package is preloaded and that they are legal, accredited transcripts. If it does non and the seller is non willing to provide the proper certification, so package buccaneering is involved ( siia.net ) .
* OEM Piracy/Unbundling
“ OEM ( original equipment maker ) package is package that is merely lawfully sold with specified hardware ” ( siia.net ) When these plans are copied and sold individually from the hardware, this becomes an violation of the distribution contract between the seller and the package maker. ( siia.net )
* Unauthorized usage of Academic Software
“ Many package companies sell academic versions of their package to public schools, universities and other educational establishments ” ( siia.net ) The monetary value of this package is frequently extremely reduced by the publishing house in recognition of the educational nature of the establishments. “ Using academic package in misdemeanor of the package licence is a signifier of package buccaneering ” ( siia.net ) Acquiring and utilizing academic package hurts non merely the package publishing house, but besides the establishment that was the intended receiving system of the package ( siia.net )
“ Counterfeiting is the duplicate and sale of unauthorised transcripts of package in such a mode as to seek to go through off the illegal transcript as if it were a legitimate transcript manufactured or authorized by the package publishing house ” ( siia.net ) “ Much of the package offered for deal sale at computing machine trade shows and on auction and classified advertizement web sites is imitative package ” ( siia.net ) The monetary value and beginning are frequently arrows as to whether the package is imitative. For illustration, if a peculiar piece of package usually retails for $ 2399 but is being sold or auctioned for $ 299 so one must surmise fowl-play. Likewise, if a peculiar package seller merely sells its merchandises through certain authorised channels, so a buyer would be wise non to purchase the package at a trade show ( siia.net )
* CD-R Piracy
CD-ROM buccaneering is the illegal copying of package utilizing CD-ROM entering engineering. This signifier of buccaneering occurs when a individual obtains a transcript of a package plan and makes a transcript or transcripts and re-distributes them to friends/family or for re-sale. ( siia.net )
* Download Piracy
“ Download buccaneering is the uploading of package onto an Internet web site for anyone to download a transcript ” ( siia.net ) Anyone who uploads or downloads the package is doing an illegal transcript and is hence guilty of package buccaneering. “ Examples of this include the offering of package through a web site, P2P web or share-hosting site ” ( siia.net, 2008 )
* Manufacturing Plant Sale of Overruns and ‘Scraps ‘
“ Plant buccaneering occurs when a works produces more transcripts of the package than it was authorized to do, and so resells these unauthorized overproductions. Piracy besides occurs when the works is ordered by the publishing house to destruct any Cadmiums non distributed to its sellers, but the works, in misdemeanor of these orders, resells those Cadmiums that were intended to be scrapped ” ( siia.net, 2008 ) ” While most workss have conformity processs in topographic point, there have been several cases of this type of buccaneering ” ( siia.net, 2008 )
Renting package for impermanent usage, like you would a film, was made illegal in the United States by the “ Software Rental Amendments Act of 1990 and in Canada by a 1993 amendment to the Copyright Act ” ( siia.net ) . “ As a consequence, lease of package is rare ” ( siia.net, 2008 )
2.4.2 Effect of Software Piracy on Market
Harmonizing to the 4th one-year Business Software Alliance ( BSA ) and International Data Corporation ( IDC ) survey in 2006, for every two dollar worth of package purchased lawfully, about one dollar worth was obtained illicitly ( portal.acm.org ) In fact, the state of affairs is so inexorable in some states that the package Publishers Association ( SPA ) has named them “ one-copy states, ” which basically means that the full state ‘s demand can be met by one individual transcript of legitimate package. Industry surveys estimate that for every legitimate transcript of package, there are between two and ten illegal transcripts ( Conner and Rumelt, 1991 ) . In one survey, more than half of those surveyed admitted that they had made unauthorised transcripts of computing machine package ( Sacco and Zureik, 1990 ) . Harmonizing to IDC estimations, while the Personal computer package market will turn $ 50 billion to $ 70 billion over the following 5 old ages, the value of the pirated package market will turn to about $ 40 billion.
Software buccaneering has many harmful effects, non merely to the Godhead of the merchandise, but besides to the state where the pirated package is sold. The local package industry is crippled by competition from high-quality yet highly inexpensive pirated package from abroad. Lost revenue enhancement grosss and lost occupations consequence from deficiency of a legal market ( BSA, 2004 ) . These effects are felt intensely up and down the package supply ironss. In an April 2003 survey funded by the BSA, the IDC concluded that decrease of worldwide buccaneering by 10 % over 4 old ages would add more that 1 million new occupations and $ 400 billion in economic growing worldwide. These Numberss are based merely on the retail value of pirated package, as it has been suggested that the greater portion of package buccaneering occurs because of “ insouciant copying ” wherein an single provides transcripts of package to household, friends and others ( bsa.org )
2.5 Benefits of Lower Piracy
The findings from a survey carried out by the International Data Corporation ( IDC ) on the Impact of Software Piracy in 2008 show that:
- For every dollar Microsoft realized from lower package buccaneering in 2008, other companies in the package ecosystem ( i.e. resellers, systems planimeters and service houses ) realized $ 5.50 in sum.
- The $ 5.50 came from two beginnings: $ 4.37 in increased grosss and $ 1.13 in lower costs.
- The largest parts of the gross addition came from faster gross revenues rhythms ( 31 % ) and faster service and merchandise bringing ( 40 % ) ; the largest portion of the cost nest eggs came from take downing the cost of the service ( 64 % ) .
- Since a important part of unaccredited package is out of conformity, there is an extra chance to offer clients merchandises and services that relate to licence and package plus direction.
More findings from the survey carried out by the International Data Corporation showed that:
- For every dollar gained by Microsoft in 2008 from lower buccaneering of its merchandises, the ecosystem that sells, services and develop the merchandises that run on or with that package gained $ 4.37.
- For every dollar of package saved from lower buccaneering or package licence abuse in 2008, the ecosystem gained $ 1.13.
2.6 Advantages of Software Piracy
- It is cheaper
- It is easy accessible
- It is improbable to be discovered
2.7 Disadvantages of Software Piracy
- Increase the opportunities that the package will non work right or will neglect wholly ;
- The user of pirated package forfeits the entree to client support, ascents, proficient certification and preparation ;
- The users have no guarantee to protect themselves ;
- Increase the user ‘s hazard of exposure to a lay waste toing virus that can destruct valuable informations ;
- The user may happen that the package is really an out-of-date version, trial version, or a nonfunctioning transcript which could be extremely frustrating ;
- Users of pirated package are capable to important mulcts for copyright violation ;
- It is risk possible and brings negative promotion and public and private embarrassment to the user of pirated package ( theinquirer.net )
A description of the administration to be studied will get down in this chapter. This chapter will besides sketch the research attacks and schemes that will be applied to analyze the administration selected. The research methods will be the inductive and deductive attacks, with an illustration of the implicit in research doctrine they are each based on.
For this thesis primary and secondary informations will be used in the research for this work. Besides the restrictions and jobs encountered in the class of the research will be examined with suggestions on how it may be corrected in the hereafter.
3.2 Research Strategy
There are assorted schemes involved in the procedure of any research, these schemes include experiment, experiment is normally regarded as restricted, study is much wider than experiment, a good illustration is questionnaires, instance survey ; helps to stress on the existent life characters of societal relation, grounded theory ; involves the field work techniques used for participant observation and besides action research where the survey seeks to rectify bing jobs. Gill and Johnson ( 1998 ) helped categorise the research strategies into four types.
- Analytic studies and experimental research design are concerned with perceptual experience
- Action research is concerned with character of context
- Descriptive study research design is concerned with generalization
- Grounded theory is concerned with character of context.
The research will prosecute a combination of these schemes, of import to this research will be instance surveies and study. Besides it will be indispensable for the research to follow an inductive attack to research. With both inductive attack best suites the capable affair because observations can be made from the bing forms and regularities being made by the administration at manus.
However there is another research doctrine called the realist attack, this attack is both a combination of both the rationalist and the anti rationalist attacks. ( Saunders et al 2003 )
However harmonizing to ( Walliman, 2001 ) although they both have their disadvantages and advantages they can all be used for the major intents of research which are geographic expedition, description and account ( page228 ) .
The inductive attack which is an of import attack method that will be used for this thesis will trust mostly on information from administrations and company web sites, including inside informations obtained from organisation one-year studies. The inductive attack will be the foundation of this research.
3.3 Case Study Approach
Saunders et Al ( 2003 ) stated that a instance survey attack provides the chance to look into the present worthiness of the bing literature and to supply for researching deeper and making new theories ( page93 ) . For this ground a instance survey attack has been adopted ; this will give the research worker the chance to obtain direct replies to direct inquiries from mediums such as questionnaires, interviews and observation. The instance survey attack is necessary for the capable affair to be better understood because the consequence of Software Piracy ; what better manner to trap indicate the importance of information systems on administrations than instance surveies on successful administrations.
3.3.1 Troubles in Roll uping Data from Organisations
During the class of this research assorted obstructions were encountered, one of the major obstructions was acquiring existent clip information from Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Corporation is a planetary administration runing in many states around the universe. This served as a trouble because assorted subdivisions around the universe runing in different societies with different civilizations, but how this is achieved varies a batch on the part in which they operate.
Besides, acquiring interviews from directors and functionaries in Microsoft Corporation was disputing as many of the offers were turned down. Most functionaries contacted asked the writer to entree all the information needed online because most information needed to cognize about Software buccaneering was online, which of class was non true.
3.3.2 Primary Data
The advantage of primary informations is that it can bring forth consequences which are accurate representation of the sample.
A phone interview was conducted at the organisation ; the person interviewed was a director that represented Microsoft Corporation in Europe. The phone interview went good but could hold been better if granted more clip. Messages were sent to functionaries from SIIA and BCS, but deficient information was gathered by this attack. Case surveies are besides an of import facet of this thesis ; instance surveies will be carried out on Microsoft Corporation to give a better apprehension of how effectual package buccaneering is to the system.
Life history of the administration will besides be indispensable in this research, this will let for the writer to cognize the past life and beginning of the administration ; this will assist develop a better apprehension of the administration ‘s development over the past old ages.
3.3.3 Secondary Data
Secondary informations aggregation will be acquired from articles and diaries, printed books. The writer will do a batch mention to Middlesex school of Engineering and Information Sciences. Besides, the company ‘s one-year studies and trusted web sites publications will do up the secondary information that will be used in the class of this research.
3.4 Research Methodology Limitations
In other to guarantee that the information and information acquired during the class of this research are dependable, it was indispensable to unite different methods of achieving information so that they could be transverse examined. For illustration it would be better to achieve both primary and secondary informations ; this manner they could both be compared therefore doing the information credible by looking for defects or incompatibilities. The information and information acquired for the research are rather huge doing it indispensable for them to be cross referenced.
This is the most common reverse pupils have for researches ; for this research the writer decided to set about a instance survey on one administration because of the portion emphasis of acquiring contacts. Software Corporation in London was chosen and with its central offices located in the United States it would hold been better to pass on with a representative from the United State. But because of the distance involved an agreement for a representative here in Europe was the best option.
A major restraint in this research is the deficit of clip. Adequate clip is required to form interviews with a representative of Microsoft Corporation. Besides, clip is required to garner information from questionnaires and other beginnings. Time is besides required to transport out research and look into past documents, diaries, articles and relevant books for the information required to do this undertaking excellent.
This chapter started with the debut of the undermentioned Software Corporation administration ; this is the administration that will be studied in other to give more penetration to the capable affair. Software is the strong clasp of engineering, a batch of investings have been made on it, over a billion was invested in the past decennary.
The chapter besides highlighted the restriction encountered during the research. Besides the methods that will be adopted in the informations aggregation of information for the research which include primary and secondary informations aggregation methods were mentioned.
4.1 Survey Design and Data Collection
A questionnaire can be said to be a “ prepared set of inquiries designed to bring forth informations necessary for carry throughing the aims of the research undertaking ” ( glencoe.com, 2008 ) . Besides merely set, a questionnaire is “ a signifier incorporating a set of inquiries ; submitted to people to derive statistical information ” ( Princeton.edu ) .
22.214.171.124 Advantages of Questionnaires
- Questionnaires can be said to be really cost effectual when compared to face-to-face interviews ( informatics.oeg, 2008 ) . This is chiefly true for surveies that involve big sample sizes and big geographic countries. “ Written questionnaires become even more cost effectual as the figure of research inquiries increases ” ( philseflsupport.com, 2008 ) )
- Questionnaires are known to be really easy to analyse. “ Data entry and tabular matter for about all studies can be easy done with many computing machine package bundles ” like Microsoft Excel ( philseflsupport.com, 2008 ) )
- Questionnaires are well-known to most people. Almost everyone has had some experience finishing questionnaires or make fulling a signifier and they by and large do non do people nervous ( philseflsupport.com, 2008 )
- Questionnaires cut down prejudice most times. “ There is unvarying inquiry presentation and there is no middle-man prejudice ” ( phiseflsupport.com, 2008 ) . With this method, the research worker ‘s sentiments will non pull strings the respondent to reply inquiries in a certain manner. “ There are no verbal or ocular hints to act upon the respondent ” ( philseflsupport.com, 2008 )
- Questionnaires are less pushful than telephone or face-to-face studies ( philseflsupport.com, 2008 ) . When a respondent receives a questionnaire in the mail, he is free to finish the questionnaire on his ain time-table. “ Unlike other research methods, the respondent is non interrupted by the research tool ” ( philseflsupport.com, 2008 )
126.96.36.199 Disadvantages of Questionnaires
- One major disadvantage of written questionnaires is the possibility of low response rates. Low response is the nuisance of statistical analysis. It can dramatically take down our assurance in the consequences. Response rates vary widely from one questionnaire to another ( 10 % – 90 % ) , nevertheless, well-designed surveies systematically produce high response rates ( philseflsupport.com )
- One other disadvantage of questionnaires is the inability to question responses. “ Questionnaires are structured instruments ” ( research-methods.com ) They allow the respondent small flexibleness with regard to the response layout. In kernel, they frequently lose the “ spirit of the response ” ( philseflsupport.com )
- “ About 90 per centum of all communicating is ocular ” ( phiseflsupport.com ) Gestures and other ocular looks are non offered with written questionnaires. “ The deficiency of personal contact will hold different effects depending on the type of information being requested ” ( research-methods.com ) “ A questionnaire bespeaking factual information might likely non be affected by the deficiency of personal contact but a questionnaire asking sensitive issues or attitudes may be strictly affected ” ( philseflsupport.com )
- When returned questionnaires arrive, it is about natural to presume that the respondent is the same individual you sent the questionnaire to. This may non really be the instance. “ Many times concern questionnaires get handed to other employees for completion ” ( research-methods.com ) Housewives sometimes react for their hubbies. “ Kids respond as a buffoonery ” ( philseflsupport.com ) For a assortment of grounds, the respondent may non be who you think it is. “ It is a confusing mistake inherent in questionnaires ” ( philseflsupport.com )
- Finally, questionnaires are merely non allow for some people ( research-methods.com ) . For illustration, a written study to a group of ill educated people might non work because of reading accomplishment jobs. “ More often, people are turned off by written questionnaires because of abuse ” ( philseflsupport.com )
- See a transcript of the questionnaire used for this paper in Appendix 4.
4.1.2 Telephone Interview
A telephone interview is one conducted by doing a call through to the interviewee after set uping the day of the month and clip for the interview. Questions are asked and replies are given without the demand for close contact.
188.8.131.52 Advantages of Telephone Interview
- Wide geographical entree. Peoples from all over the universe can be interviewed. But this can merely be done if they have entree to atelephoneor a Personal computer ( informat.org ) .
- Hard to make populations. It enables the research worker to reach people that might be hard to work with. For illustration house married womans who live at place with little kids, displacement workers, people who have disablements and computing machine nuts ( informat.org )
- Closed site entree. Telephone interview is a possible meansofaccess to people on sites, which have closed or limited entree. For illustration infirmaries spiritual communities, prisons, the military, and cults ( informat.org )
- Sensitive histories. Some personal issues are extremely sensitive that the participants might be really loath to discourse them with an interviewer particularly face to face ( informat.org )
- Access to dangerous or politically sensitive sites. With atelephone, interviewers can interviewpopulation life or workinginwar zones, or topographic points where diseases are widespread, without necessitating to be afraid of injury or of infection-and the official procedure-ofvisiting the part ( Mann & A ; Stewart 2000 )
184.108.40.206 Disadvantages of Telephone Interview
- Conducting the interview is some-what similar to the face-to-face version but with several restraints ( informat.org ) Obviously, unless the interviewer has the latest in cellular engineering, you can non see your respondent. This means that the interviewer would lose all of the little hints of body-language and facial look that add texture to the interview. Similarly, the respondent can non see the interviewer. A intermission at the other terminal of the telephone line might experience much more drawn-out than it is so, the respondent must ever be informed about what you ( the interviewer ) are making ( informat.org )
- There are fewer chances to add mixture to the telephone interview because the interviewer can non demo the respondent anything. Although a checklist could hold been sent over in progress, the chance to present the activity within a colloquial context is lost ( informat.org ) . Besides, although it may look as if respondents normally appear to concentrate carefully during telephone interviews, a drawn-out interview will ever experience longer. The ideal length for a telephone interview should be about 30 proceedingss, whereas a 45 infinitesimal version of a face-to-face interview may likely non experience long ( informat.org )
- Finally, other restraints are more psychological in character. Many people do non like talking on the telephone ( informat.org ) . Some people seem to happen it more hard to develop a train of idea on the telephone and a few people have ” evolved such a staccato telephone mode that it may be difficult to hear or construe what is being said or to wheedle out much utile information ” ( Information Management Associates ) .
5.1 Microsoft and Software Piracy
A major package seller that has been vastly affected by package larceny is Microsoft Corporation. “ The package seller is day-to-day plagued by knave bargainers who sell bootlegged package to consumers who in bend buy them and do transcripts for friends or other grounds.
Microsoft has taken legal action against more than 100 high street computing machine shops over the last 18 months, and with the UK buccaneering rate presently standing at 27 % , it is clear this is non a limited job that occurs merely seldom ” ( computerweekly.com )
In a farther 10 separate instances, the undermentioned computing machine stores each faced tribunal action and admitted to selling improper package.
- Computer Clinic, Bolton
- Computer Port, Walsall
- Eazy Personal computer, Redcar
- Goldcast Computers, Stockton-on-Tees
- Matrix Computers, Stockton-on-Tees
- Personal computer Assist, Oldham
- Personal computer Support, Worcester
- Personal Touch Computers Ltd, Portsmouth
- Platinum Computers, Hartlepool
- The Little Computer Shop, Griffithstown, Pontypool ( computing machine hebdomadally )
The package seller besides faces the jobs posed by unethical employees. An illustration is the instance of a former employee of Microsoft who admits & A ; lb ; 3.8m package larceny. “ The 36-year-old former employee, described as an helper at the Seattle company, was accused of stealing package worth a entire & A ; lb ; 3.8m ” ( computerweekly.com ) . “ He has admitted telling package through the company ‘s internal system after feigning that it was for corporate usage ” ( computing machine hebdomadally )
The latest employee to hold been caught resigned from Microsoft early last twelvemonth ( 2008 ) . Other employees who worked with him are expected to confront larceny charges at a ulterior day of the month ( Computer hebdomadally ) .
5.2 Microsoft Corporation ‘s Datas
From tabular arraies 4.0 and 5.0, it is clear that positive alterations in footings of gross and income took topographic point in 2008 for Microsoft Corporation. As before stated, one of the grounds for these alterations is the anti-piracy tactics employed by the package seller. The tabular arraies further show the consequence buccaneering can hold on the company ‘s income and gross.
5.3 Research Instrument and Data
As mentioned earlier, some of the informations used for this research were obtained by agencies of a questionnaire. There two types of questionnaire. The two questionnaires were labeled A and B. Questionnaire A and B contained the same set of inquiries. The questionnaires labeled A were served to the 3rd British pupils in Middlesex University ‘s school of Engineering and Information Sciences, while the questionnaires labeled B were served to the Asian ( particularly Chinese ) pupils of the establishment mentioned above. All the pupils were unemployed at the clip the questionnaires were served. Hence, they can non be regarded as people with high income. Besides, all the pupils served were between the ages of 21 and 30 at the clip the questionnaires were served.
Persons ‘ attitudes and behaviors are influenced by factors such as age, gender, income, experience and type of instruction ( Jaeger, 2003 ) and Rahim et Al ( 1999, 2000 ) . Against this, I propose the undermentioned hypothesis:
H1: Demographic parametric quantities have impact on the usage of pirated package
The degree of usage of pirated package depends on factors such as pricing schemes, handiness of original package and being and cognition of package right of first publication jurisprudence ( Lau, 2003 ) . The being of package right of first publication jurisprudence varies from part to part ( Mishra, 2008 ) . It is from this that I propose the undermentioned hypothesis:
H2: Region and civilization have impact on the usage of pirated package
From the findings, the consequence of demographic factors, part and civilization on package buccaneering shall be discussed.
The survey has revealed that gender has no impact on package buccaneering. Although other findings have shown that male computing machine professionals ( 18 % ) usage more pirated package than female computing machine professionals ( 14 % ) , but the difference between the genders have non been found to be statistically important. One account for this is that people who have the same background exhibit the same ethical behavior, irrespective of gender ( Mishra, 2008 ) . These findings are consistent with the 1s made by Sacco and Zureik ( 1990 ) who claim that gender have negligible effects on package buccaneering. Conversely, Lau ( 2003 ) claims that females have fewer inclinations towards package buccaneering than males. Following this, Ruegger and King ( 1992 ) claim that females have been found to be stricter in their ethical behaviors in concern state of affairss, but this can non be said to be ever true ( Fallan, 1999 ) .
Age has important impact on package buccaneering. As earlier mentioned, the age-group of respondents was between 21 and 30. Surveies have shown that younger people ( 16 % ) are more likely to utilize pirated package than older people ( 11 % ) ( Mishra, 2008 ) . Similar consequences were given by Gopal and Sanders ( 1997 ) who concluded that older people were less likely to prosecute in package buccaneering than younger people. Kini et Al ( 2000 ) besides reported that there is an “ attitudinal inclination among younger people ” to keep less moral behavior towards package buccaneering.
The consequence of cultural, economic and societal fortunes on package buccaneering in different states as mentioned by Cagiltay ( 1999 ) and Cakir et Al ( 2002 ) can non be over-emphasized. The study questionnaires A and B used in this research were served to two groups of people ( British and Asians-especially Chinese severally ) . One thing to observe from the responses was that all the Chinese people responded the same manner. Responses from questionnaire A showed low disposition to package buccaneering whereas responses from questionnaire B showed really high disposition towards package buccaneering. While replying the questionnaire, a Chinese pupil exclaimed “ why would I trouble oneself purchasing pirated package if the original version is every bit inexpensive as the pirated 1? ” This shows that pricing is a major factor that affects package buccaneering. However, Microsoft Corporation reported that package buccaneering is one of the grounds for the high monetary value of package i.e. losingss incurred from package buccaneering are retrieved back from the consumers of package ( Microsoft.com ) . It is besides of import to observe that cognition of package right of first publication Torahs besides affect the degree of package buccaneering. A female Nigerian pupil that was interviewed explained that in her state she could utilize pirated package because there are no known Torahs that are against such. And even if there were, she would non acquire caught because of the low technological promotion in her state. She nevertheless noted that in the UK where she is soon analyzing, she would ne’er utilize pirated package because she knows that there are Torahs that protect package right of first publication in the UK.
The twenty-first century as we know relies to a great extent on information, information at the chink of a button. Many industries have risen at high velocity. Organizations now depend greatly on fast agencies to run their assorted concern operations. Peoples are ready to acquire information at a inexpensive cost. Software buccaneering is quickly increasing, if any anti-software buccaneering is to be effectual at cut downing the degree of buccaneering, the societal, legal and economic effects of stealing package must be clearly communicated to the mark audience. The ethical nature of package buccaneering is confirmed with a important impact of subjective norms on behaviour. Perceived behaviour control appears non to play a function, possibly the easiness of copying package is non an issue, if people believe buccaneering is incorrect.
Figures have shown the benefits of anti-piracy on a package seller ‘s income and gross figures. Software Piracy has great impact on the company ‘s gross and this reduces the financess meant for farther research to convey about better merchandises and services for the consumers. Software sellers are thereby forced to increase the monetary value of their merchandises and services in order to modulate their fundss. This method nevertheless farther additions people ‘s inclination to utilize pirated package, as the more expensive the package is, the less likely it is for consumers to buy-except for other companies who have great demand of the package.
Software buccaneering does more injury than good to both the package sellers and the consumers of the pirated package as shown in the survey. Pirated package clearly has restrictions and does non execute every bit good as the accredited transcript. Besides, users are exposed to malware when they use pirated package, particularly when it is downloaded from the cyberspace.
The factors included in this survey were age, gender, and region/culture. The analysis showed that gender had no important consequence on the usage of pirated package. However, age and region/culture have important effects on the usage of pirated package. Software pricing besides and the cognition of package right of first publication Torahs have been shown to hold impacts on the usage of pirated package.
Finally, larger samples which may take to hold more penetration into the grounds for package buccaneering are recommended. Extension of the content of study might besides be of involvement to the reader. Microsoft Corporation and other package sellers can reexamine their pricing as this has great consequence in the usage of pirated package. Governments in different states could set Torahs in topographic point to protect package right of first publication. Last, the comparing of people from other parts apart from the 1s used in the research would be of great value since the comparing above between pupils from the United Kingdom and pupils from Asia ( particularly China ) has shown the differences in moral attitude towards package buccaneering.