The Concept Of Internal Audit Accounting Essay

Internal auditing, it is non a new term for the universe of organisation. The construct of internal audit is old like 5000 old ages, at that clip people of civilised communities which were economically and politically stable used this attack to look into effectivity of their revenue enhancements and concerns so they can look into mistakes and safe the province belongings from dishonest taxpayers.

In modern universe particularly in the United States this attack rise after the Second World War and steadily turning. Internal audit has much similarity with fiscal auditing and a figure of theories are derived from direction consulting and public accounting.


“ Internal auditing is an independent, nonsubjective confidence and consulting activity designed to add value and better an organisation ‘s operations. It helps an organisation carry through its aims by conveying a systematic, disciplined attack to measure and better the effectivity of hazard direction, control, and administration procedures. ”

Internal audit is a preventative action of a company and it is done by the professionals or experts of that company. These professionals called internal hearer and they evaluate internal control system of the company. This survey or audit study is submitted to direction and from this study they can take stairss for betterments. In requirement portion of ISO 9001:2000 it is found in the monitoring and measuring subdivision which gives thought that it is an activity that measures execution of quality direction system.

Scopes and aims of internal auditing:


The chief aim of an internal audit in the company is to better quality and cut down hazard by measuring the effectivity of procedure. Other than this internal audit is done for look intoing fiscal and runing information ‘s dependability, to safe assets from loss, resource direction, established procedure or plan me is following its nonsubjective and conformity with policies, Torahs and ordinances, designation which country needed betterment, confirmation of cGMP conformity.


Internal audit ‘s chief range is guaranting quality in well-thought-of country which is under the audit process. Design, blessing and rating of merchandise should follow with GMP. Ensure quality in GMP execution, public presentation of staff, feedbacks. Include paperss, direction and records and covering all parts of GMP.

Principles and Requirements of internal audit:

As per ISO 9000 criterions require care of papers grounds for internal audit procedure. Document grounds must include: who is put to deathing the internal audit, which section is under the audit, depicting whole procedure, supervising after internal audit program and where the consequences are documented.

These are the some common rules that applied at the clip of internal audit execution.

Internal audit is independent and grounds based attack.

All activities of internal audit should be reviewed by independent party, have a sampling and tracking line and they are unfastened and constructive.

Insure all resources are available before get downing audit.


Auditor is a employee of the company with sufficient experience and background who conduct the internal audit. Though he is an employee of the house he has to scrutinize his co-workers and their public presentation and for this he has some abilities that audit consequences are non affected by his personal relation. For this he has to be ethical, unfastened minded, diplomatic, observer, versatile, continuity, decisive and independent.

Patience is needed in scrutinizing and so the hearer must be cool and need to see what the existent state of affairs in the organisation. By and large people do n’t wish to be audited and for this he makes batch of attempt psychologically to acquire the existent reply and avoid the struggle. In the audit period he has chief one nonsubjective – put the existent position of the organisation to exceed direction.

Internal Audit procedure:

For successful audit it is required effectual communicating between direction and hearer. To obtain effectivity and in clip audit it is necessary that hearer do non travel deepness in every point and take a speedy overview and concentrate on the parts which do non follow with the company policies.

Every audit is alone ; the audit procedure is incorporating these four phases which are normally found in every audit:

Planning of audit ( reappraisal and preliminary stage )

Performing an audit ( field work stage )

Audit study ( documentation stage )

Change execution ( follow-up stage )

1. Planning of an audit ( reappraisal and preliminary stage )

In the stating of an audit direction make a meeting to be after about hearer that who will manage the audit, aims and Scopess of an audit, which country should be cover under the audit, which standards should be considered, gather information about of import procedures, prepare paper work and distribution of audit program.

2. Performing an audit ( field work stage )

After be aftering now it is clip to implement audit process but there is no common manner that hearer perform the audit. An hearer should looking what is demand, which manner the procedure can be improved, garnering and analysing information and doing best decision on his attempt.

Keep in head that internal audit is non ever done for the betterment or happen out defects, it besides recognize persons who are seting their outstanding attempts.

The undermentioned process is by and large followed in each audit:

In get downing of audit procedure the hearer foremost do a meeting with the caput of country which is traveling to be audited, explicating him range and aim of this attempt and doing him loosen up for the audit.

Auditor will analyze all procedures carefully and their result, here hearer look intoing that processes is runing in conformity of company ‘s quality direction system.

He gathers information by inquiring open-ended inquiry about procedure and personal competency.

Auditor make notes about information he got during the assorted point of audit procedure.

Auditor analyzes all the information he found and inquire himself that is process running in conformity with company ‘s policy? Or procedure demands betterment.

Before making the decision he take all the facets of audit in consideration, is at that place any failure event appeared, any country needs to be considered betterment? Are at that place any persons or sections displayed uncommon behaviour?

In the terminal of his fieldwork the hearer, hold the shutting meeting with caput of the country in presence of works director. Explain him positive and negative result of his survey and disciplinary actions for that. He tries to decide any dissension on his decision in this meeting.

3. Audit study ( documentation stage )

It is most hard portion of the procedure. An hearer should compose brief and clear summery of his determination, which includes both positive and negative results of his survey. These positive results may assist company for betterment.

The information or findings must be true, range and nonsubjective oriented, and written in mode that direction can easy understand that and can take disciplinary action from that. Audit study is a official record that should incorporate: range, standards and aim of an audit, Auditor ‘s information, clip and country where scrutinizing done, results of audit ( positive and negative ) , a shutting statement.

4. Change execution ( follow-up stage )

During this stage the non conformity is submitted to quality commission. The quality commission surveies the study submitted by an Auditor and look intoing all the non conformities are in fact differ from the company ‘s quality direction system. Upon understanding that procedure or point is none conforming, the quality commission takes action to rectify it and gives duty for this rectification to suited individual with clip bound.

During rectification quality commission observe the procedure of rectification and after alteration is implemented and procedure or point working in conformity with company ‘s policy, commission ask the same individual for follow up review. The Auditor cheque in same mode as he done earlier and look into the difference in result, if it is conformity with quality direction system of company than he give the satisfactory study to the direction. The whole procedure is documented that it could be utile for future survey.

Audited account activities

Evaluation of an hearer

Monitoring and reviewing

Identifying rectification

Preventive action

Opportunities for betterment




Choosing hearer

Monitoring audit






Get down the Audit programme







Fig. 1. Procedure flow diagram of internal auditing

Internal controls:

Internal control is a major portion of an internal auditing and rating of internal controls is one of the primaries aims of internal auditing.

In scrutinizing internal controls can be defined as procedure affected by organisation ‘s construction, employee and direction information system, authorization and work flow, designed to carry through organisation ‘s range and aims. These are common aims for internal control: effectual and efficient operations, dependable fiscal studies, conformity with Torahs and policies, protecting assets of organisation.

Internal controls are divided in chief two classs preventive controls ( designated to forestall mistakes and abnormalities from happening ) and detective controls ( designed to happen out mistakes and abnormalities after they have occurred ) . The illustrations of internal control activities are separation of responsibilities, mandate, proper certification, control over assets, discrepancy analysis, supervising operations.

A inquiry arise that who take the duty for internal controls, it ‘s non merely a occupation of internal hearer. Every employee of the organisation is responsible for care of internal controls. Internal audit aid direction to measure and advance internal control system.

Hazard direction:

Internal audit drama an of import function in hazard appraisal and rating of procedures which have important hazards. Risk direction is procedure that in which manner organisations sets its aims and so evaluates and analyzes the hazards which can bring forth impact to recognize its aim.

In regular footing organisation applied strategic, selling or capital planning, budgeting, and fudging to measure the hazard. Internal audit evaluate all this activities and procedures applied by the direction to describe and supervise possible hazard identified.

These are some nucleus functions of internal audit in hazard direction: assuring hazard direction procedure, guaranting rating of hazards and rating of hazard direction procedure, cardinal hazards rating and reexamining them to the direction, helping direction in reacting of hazards, developing hazard direction model and organizing all activities.

Internal audit V. External audit:

External audit:

In External audit organisation contact individual ( hearer ) outside of the house who audits organisation ‘s fiscal statement and subject a study to the direction. External hearer differs from internal hearer chiefly in two ways: ( 1 ) internal hearer chiefly focuses on hazard direction and internal control model, ( 2 ) internal hearer do non organize an sentiment on organisation ‘s fiscal statements.

Some similarities besides there between internal and external hearer:

Both internal and external hearer examines and evaluates many minutess.

Both study if the processs are hapless and ignorance in adhering them.

They both deeply involved in information system and based on subject and work with profession criterions.

Both are concerned for happening of mistakes and they are tied with internal control system of organisation.

Both give formal study of their activities.


Internal audit

External audit