Game industry is a sort of globalising market. This research is look intoing the relationship between game art and civilization. Due to each civilization has an original root which influences peculiar cultural signifiers. In some ways, cultural barriers prevent games from globalisation market. As a consequence, cultural barriers give a great influence to the game design.
The society of on-line games is formed by participants who come from assorted civilization backgrounds. Additionally, the online game which involves synergistic elements is affected by civilization significantly. Players are non playing with computing machine but human existences. This new manner of game drama gives more freedom to participants and interior decorators. Meanwhile, the cultural contexts are widely used in on-line game aesthetics, such as narratives in mythology. So we can see that on-line game has close connexion with civilization.
When we talk about on-line game industry we can non disregard the Chinese on-line game industry, because China is one of the biggest on-line game industries in the universe. The paper focuses on Chinese on-line game industry because of its achievements, highest velocity of development and immense online game market. And how this ancient civilization influences the new media signifier is important country to look into.
First, brief original Chinese civilization will be presented for uncluttering an archetypical civilization value. Based on Chinese on-line game industry, a local game named Westward Journey Online three is examined for acquiring valuable methods which are how to utilize the archetypical cultural values into game art. From the scrutiny on Chinese civilization, value methods possible are acquiring for widen audiences all over the universe. However, there is restriction bing in this paper which ignores other separating civilization contents. Further research might travel more elaborate on assorted civilization signifiers for this peculiar research country.
The chief intent of this research is to analyze the archetypical features that are expressed in Chinese civilization within Multiple Massive Online Games in order to explicate the shared homo values that are expressed in a uniquely Chinese look of archetypical human values to westerners. Depending on the research country in games and civilization, the major research inquiry of this research is: how archetypal/universal features are reflecting in on-line games based on Chinese civilization? Afterwards, two farther inquiries are: what is the archetypical feature of Chinese civilization? And what sorts of archetypical elements of cultural contexts could be translated into universal for more audiences in online games? The survey might set up a basic apprehension of Chinese cultural values for western participants. In footings of civilization, to incorporate the long history of mythology and emerging amusement – online games in China is a new method to look into.
In the epoch of planetary civilization, cultural barriers might blockade the distributions of games to run into participants ‘ outlooks that come from different cultural backgrounds in footings of game aesthetics. The western participants perchance have different beauty gustatory sensations on game aesthetics comparing to eastern participants, the contention on a female character in Mirror ‘s Edge ( DICE 2009 ) between Nipponese participants and European participants demonstrates different positions on female beauty in games. Two sides of participants are discontented with the other side ‘s female character design so that the hot treatment was caused online ( Liuduanyinsu 2008 ) . Sing to the cultural phenomena on game aesthetics, the cultural barriers might be one of factors which influence game art.
The game designs involve many elements from assorted mythologies of civilizations. For illustration, in China there are plentifulness of on-line games affecting the elements form Chinese mythologies like Journey to the West which is a mythic authoritative novel in China ; this novel was adopted several times into on-line games. These myths might enable the game to derive archetypical characteristics but at the same clip these elements might go a barrier to do games unpopular and incomprehension among participants form other civilization. The incomprehension happened in the Dynasty Warriors that is a video game affecting strong Chinese cultural features. All characters and environmental designs of this game came from a Chinese authoritative novel, the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Therefore, the game had different attending rate in western participants and eastern participants. Dynasty Warriors gained a high mark in E, oppositely the western critic reappraisals on this game was lower harmonizing to the critics reviews in the UK and Famitsu Scores in Japan ( IDG Entertainment 2004, Famitsu Scores 2005 ) . The game affecting strong cultural contexts might go a span for presenting cultural contexts to participants come from other civilization but it besides meets an obstruction which prevents the game to distribute among the people from assorted civilizations.
The scrutiny of Chinese civilization is designed to give a brief feeling to western readers for understanding the distinguishable cultural signifier which has really different doctrine of life, attitudes, life style, political orientation and values from westerners. The differences could be discovered in a Germany research worker ‘s images which illustrate westerners and easterners ‘ showing the personal pinion, life style, interpersonal relationship, showing choler, beauty criterion, job resolution, old age, leading so on ( Complete images see Appendix 1 ) . So the spread of eastern civilization to westerners is the same of import as western civilization to easterners for obtaining common comprehensions each other in the tendency of globalisation.
It is rare to happen the scrutiny to the civilization in footings of mythology and on-line games in present academic country, the new signifier of game surveies could be explored for deriving decisions for farther development of game devising. Hades which origins from Greek mythology appeared in God of War: Ironss of Olympus which is an action-adventure game for Play Station Portable ( Ready at Dawn 2008 ) . The background narrative of Journey to the West which is a mythic novel in China is employed into the Westward Journey Online 3 ( Neteast 2009 ) . Why is this state of affairs go oning? Are at that place same characteristics between mythology and games so that the two things could be concordantly combined? In the research, the Journey to the West and games that were adapted from it is employed as a instance to look into for happening the acceptable replies.
The game industry is globalising, games are considered as a planetary cultural signifier by research workers ( Stephen, Nick and Greig 2003, p.13 ) . The epoch of information detonation gives an chance to research the relationship between civilization and games particularly Massively Multi-player Online games. Players from assorted civilizations could be populating in the practical universe of MMO games and set uping a common community together. Therefore, on-line game offers a platform to participants. The corporate property in the universe of on-line games might be similar with civilization. When a alone cultural context is applied into a game design, it might be set to aim a peculiar group of participants. How make these cultural contexts influence on-line games and how are the platforms edifice by cultural elements to run into participants ‘ outlooks is a deserving research inquiry to research in footings of game surveies.
This research chiefly employed a instance survey of the Westward Journey Online three as a major methodological analysis to unfold analysis and scrutiny on the relationship between civilization and game aesthetics. Because the on-line game is an illustration designing by local developers, and uniting archetypical features of Chinese civilization into game design furthermore deriving a successful selling net incomes in Chinese on-line game industry.
Respects to the original contexts of the Westward Journey Online Three, the Chinese authoritative novel, the Journey to the West, was widely used into the game design and aesthetics. The characteristic of the game was used to look into how the mythology harmoniously using into on-line games and meet parts of participants ‘ outlooks. Several of old surveies on the Journey to the West were employed into the survey, and these mentions established a basic apprehension of historical research on the peculiar fiction.
Datas were collected from assorted academic countries, including civilization surveies, research on game industry surveies and surveies on mythology. Different informations beginnings give an built-in construct in the multiple surveies.
From the survey on civilization and games based on Chinese cultural contexts, a basic apprehension of unfamiliar cultural signifier could be established in western readers. A possible way of how to unite archetypical features into game design for run intoing more participants ‘ outlooks might be discovered through the scrutinies and analyses on a peculiar online game. At the same clip, another research way might be generated from the same research subject ; the one side survey of Chinese civilization opened an attack to look into other cultural signifiers utilizing established methods and way.
For replying those research inquiries, multidiscipline survey will be involved. There are civilization surveies, art, selling and the newest one- computing machine games study. Depends on purposes and research inquiries, the aims have been listed below:
- To set up apprehension of archetypical features and cosmopolitan features in footings of Chinese civilization.
- To research the relation of mythology and game aesthetics across several topics.
- To research the maps of civilization in game aesthetics and seek possibility of uniting two different civilizations into game art for widen participants.
The Overview of Chinese Online Game Industry
Localization of Chinese Online Game Industry
Chinese on-line games industry is localization because of the lower export degree. The grounds might be the scheme of authorities, cultural barriers or restriction of development. Chinese on-line game industry gives a great influence on the globalisation game market place. From the research of the three states that are American, Korea and China, it could be discovered that the income of American on-line game came from games exporting, and Korea is developing the exportation outside and locally operating, the income of China on-line game chiefly came from locally runing. Therefore, a portion of income in American and Korea online games came from Chinese on-line game market place ( iResearch 2009 ) . The study from iResearch ( 2009 ) evinced that the gross of Chinese on-line game market occupied about 27 per centums of planetary game market and it is ranked the 2nd place, American online game industry is 29 per centums to take the lead and Korea is the 3rd place as 21 per centums. Due to the fact about the informations beginnings of game exportation, it is cognizant that Chinese on-line market place might be considered on the position of having which is caused by local cultural impacts.
However, non all games could be popular in China. In the first half twelvemonth of 2009, the attending rate of on-line games was chiefly occupied by local Chinese games 49.65 % and Korean games 43.82 % ( Baidu 2009 ) . And the European, American and Nipponese games merely took up entire about 7 % in the whole. The similar civilizations of China and Korea is possible a ground why the Korean games could be acceptable by Chinese participants. Korea and China are located in one continent and Korean civilization was influenced by Chinese civilization. Therefore, the two states have a similar civilization and Chinese participants could easy understand the background narratives, characters, environments of Korea games. Due to the different cultural signifiers between western states including Europe and America and China, the games involves different cultural elements were barely comprehended by Chinese participants. Respects on Japan, the Nipponese game developers emphasize on the development of console games instead than on-line games. So the little exporting rate of Nipponese on-line games demonstrates on the pie chart. Sum up, the cultural span between Korea and China gives on-line games a shared market place, because participants portion a common cultural footing.
On the whole, the Chinese on-line game industry is bit by bit acquiring more and more of import position in international game industry by ground that the Chinese market size is 30.4 million dollars which occupies 27.1 per centums of the gross income of planetary online game selling in 2008 harmonizing to the iResearch China Online Game Research Report ( 2009 ) . In add-on, China on-line game industry has the fastest developing velocity. The study predicted that the tenancy of Chinese on-line game market will continually increase at the velocity of 5 per centums based on the research. Additionally, it is expected that the tenancy of Chinese on-line game market will be near to 50 per centums, and make to 45.9 per centums ( iResearch 2009 ) . The on-line game market in China is an of import topographic point in international game industry ; it gives a great net income to developers, and publishing houses. Therefore, understanding Chinese civilization might be a door to open the market in footings of game design and aesthetics.
The grounds of localisation of on-line games roar in China
The localisation of Chinese on-line game industry is perchance caused by multiple grounds. Local games with strong cultural contexts could acquire sympathetic attendings by participants who live in the cultural environments. From the subjects of on-line games in China, the Wuxia and mythologies were in a heavy demand depends on the research on attending rate on genres of on-line games in China ( Baidu 2009 ) . No affair Wuxia or mythologies, both of them are a sort of strong cultural contexts. Wuxia is a alone cultural signifier in Chinese ancient times. There are several MMORPG games utilizing the typical subject as the background narrative and game character designs. Xiake is a character ‘s appellation in Wuxia. It is a gallant individual which includes several alone liquors which are sense of honor and justness, trueness, faithful to friends, functioning good for people ( Hudong 2009 ) . However, Xiake normally get treasure utilizing illegal entrees such as robbery. Although they use these illegal hoarded wealths to assist hapless people, the behavior still causes destabilizing factors in society so that authorities in ancient China turns against the category of xiake. The group of people named Xiake was generated by the social state of affairs at that clip. The perversive authorities, unjust social systems and personal freedom are caused the peculiar group. A authoritative novel named Water Margin was depicting this group.
Another subject of on-line games is the mythology which is besides a sort of strong cultural context like Wuxia. William ( 2000 ) considers myth is “ culturally of import ” , and myths are this sort of narrative which are created by persons ‘ readings in know aparting particular societies. Myths demonstrate certain civilization contents such as spiritual, rites, imposts, and people ‘s behavior. Therefore, it might convey us to an articulate civilization signifier by analyzing the peculiar mythology. The cultural property of mythology might be considered cultural demands from participants. Why participants are desire to populate in a fabulous universe in on-line games? The reply was presented in the Chapter 3.3 depends on the treatment of mythology and civilization and analysis the relationship between mythology and on-line games.
By and large talking, local participants ‘ demands are an indicant the ground of localisation of Chinese on-line game industry because of cultural apprehension. Players request culturally contents in games, because they could happen familiar characters, kids heroes and the common historical knowledge from these games. Therefore, how to unite the cultural contexts into on-line games becomes a important research country to look into.
The background of Chinese civilization
The corporate and discriminatory civilization
In different state of affairs, the definition of civilization has different accounts. The research chiefly discussed art and civilization for the latter probe of game art and civilization. Therefore, the definition of civilization related to art or aesthetics is the focal point ; it does non intend other of import comprehension of civilization surveies are ignored, all the necessary survey besides is considered through the whole procedure of probe. For the ulterior research, which definition of civilization is decently suited for look intoing the relation of civilization and game aesthetics might be sorted out.
Culture could be understood as a group of people who has a similar gustatory sensation on game aesthetics. This might be the ground why cultural barriers influence merchandising of games which involve strong cultural characteristics. First the definition of civilization in dictionary must be considered. The ‘culture ‘ in English involves several significances as a noun. The one of major definitions in Oxford Advanced Learner ‘s English-Chinese Dictionary ( 1990, p.284 ) of civilization described that ‘all the humanistic disciplines, beliefs, societal establishments, etc feature of a community, race, etc ‘ . In Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner ‘s English Dictionary ( 2004 ) , there are similar accounts of the term ‘culture ‘ that are ‘ civilization consists of activities such as the humanistic disciplines and doctrine, which are considered to be of import for the development of civilisation and of people ‘s head ‘ , ‘ a civilization is a peculiar society or civilisation, particularly considered in relation to its beliefs, manner of life, or art ‘ and ‘the civilization of a peculiar organisation or group consists of the wonts of the people in it and the manner they by and large behave ‘ . From these definitions in dictionary, the chief characteristic of civilization is corporate, a certain topic of people ‘s common head. The common land includes humanistic disciplines, beliefs, wonts, life style, imposts, establishments and doctrine. So sometimes, the civilization means people ‘s shared head in one state, one race even bigger in one group which has common benefits. Simply talking, participants ‘ cultural backgrounds might find their gustatory sensations on game aesthetics. The participants come from same or similar cultural backgrounds might hold a similar gustatory sensation on aesthetic grasps of game art.
The different countries in game industry could be distinguished by analyzing cultural features, because civilization is discriminatory. Culture is regarded as “ the corporate scheduling of the head that distinguishes the members of one group or class of people from another ” by Geert ( 2001 ) . If a civilization loses its ain distinguishing characteristic, it will disappear in the universe. The assorted cultural signifiers give a colorful universe. Peoples could convert Scots by kilts, acknowledge the sushi by the cognition of Nipponese civilization and separate the western oil pictures from traditional Chinese pictures by aesthetic information in civilization. If these separating characteristics which exist in assorted sorts of civilizations disappear there are non indicants assisting us to know apart these civilizations. As a consequence of that, civilization involves the of import map which is placing human ‘s beginnings. Therefore, different civilizations exist by their designation and favoritism with other cultural signifiers.
A civilization is archetypical and separating. Therefore, the different civilization gives separating art manners to assorted games. Furthermore, some important elements of civilization have been perchance applied into game art and design.
Main contexts of Chinese civilization
The Chinese civilization exists for 1000s of old ages ; it has great influences to the East country and other parts of the universe. Due to the complex civilization signifiers, it is difficult to show a really clear and inside informations of this peculiar civilization. This paper is look intoing the major root of Chinese civilization which perchance affects modern new media the games. These contents of Chinese cultural root include Confucianism, Taoism and really important constructs of harmoniousness between adult male and nature. These foundational constructs of Chinese civilization give a great influence to really facets of modern society. Meanwhile, games reflect or being reflected these traditional cultural constructs more or less.
The Confucianism is a complexness. Some people consider it is a cult, others think it is a signifier of acquisition ( Xinzhong 2000 ) . However, the research respects Confucianism is a signifier of civilization. The content of Confucianism involves several subjects such as moral, societal, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious which reflect cultural contexts in China.
Due to the Confucianism involves different accounts in different historical periods ; there is no specific definition for it. From different facets, we could acquire different comprehensions from Confucianism. However, the cardinal idea still exists and has positive impacts on modern Chinese people. By and large talking, there are three nucleuss subjects and a important nucleus construct in Confucianism. Those are “ Li ” – rite in English, “ De ” – virtuousness, “ Ren ” – humanity and the philosophy of mean. More inside informations of contents in Confucianism could be read in Appendix 2.
In the research, the features of China are traveling to discourse from the native faith of Taoism instead than probe on faith itself. Taoism is a native philosophical and spiritual of China and it concentrate on the moral codification. It came from China and has influenced East Asia for over two millenaries and the West for over two centuries ( James 2003 ) . On one manus, Taoism is one of chief original inspirations for Chinese games. On the other manus, it is a nucleus of human value in Chinese society.
Taoism ‘s constructs could be applied into computing machine game design. The original faith involves several worships. Those include nature worship, totem worship, spirits worship and ascendant worship. Furthermore, there is a complex system of Daoism, different subdivisions have different leaders. These characteristics of Daoism give great inspirations to game interior decorators. The characteristics have already employed into several Chinese games which used traditional subjects and backgrounds. The Jianxia3 online use many Daoism ‘s elements into the game drama ( Kingsoft 2009 ) . Players could take Chunyang subdivision which is a existent subdivision of Daoism as their kins. There are many suites of Daoism could be employed into game design such as heavenly existences, doing pills of immortality and Fengshui theory in Daoism. Appendix 3 is employed to present the really inside informations of contexts in Taoism.
This construct of relationship between adult male and nature reflects into game design is that the characters in games normally involve visual aspects of natural things like animate being monsters. The state of affairs is really different from western games which rarely apply monsters came from nature. This might be caused by Chinese original root which is called harmoniousness between adult male and nature which is widely considered as the chief chief portion of Chinese traditional civilization. In the traditional Chinese civilization, the universe is separated into three parts that are heaven, manpower and Earth. For each portion there are specific authoritative texts for steering people ‘s behavior. The authoritative texts include I Ching, the analect of Confucius, the Sunzi Art of War, the Dao Te Ching and Huang di nei Ching ( more inside informations see Appendix 4 ) .
The ancient authoritative traditional Chinese doctrine Teachs Chinese people the major behavior. It affects people ‘s picks more or less in modern society. Understanding Chinese civilization, these rules have to be clarified, because when the character involves archetypical features it must follows some elements from these constructs from ancient China.
The original mythology in Chinese civilization
In footings of game design, there are many games using mythic elements into character designs, background narratives, environment designs and petitions designs. There might hold common senses between games and myths. Why could the mythic contents be widely employed into games? This chapter will discourse myth and happen out the adhering point between myths and games.
The common characteristics of mythology and games
Myths are cosmopolitan and archetypical in every cultural signifier by utilizing dialectic method of analysis. At the first topographic point, it needs to clear up that what are mythology and what sort of features is involved in mythology. Williams ( 2000 ) suggested that myths are fictional but non unreal and non-empirical, nevertheless they are non inexplicable and formed by values of cardinal fabulous orientations of civilizations. And a common controversy of mythology is that “ myths are narratives about Gods or distant ascendants, myths are sacred narratives, myths are narratives that explain how the universe and worlds came to be in their present signifiers, and myths encapsulate of import information about human idea, feeling, history, and societal life ” ( Yang, Deming and Jessica 2005 ) . However, peculiar myths could be understood by people who live in the peculiar civilization environment, it is difficult to be comprehended by other individual who has different civilization background if he has non established apprehension of the peculiar civilization, because every cultural mythology has separating characteristics.
In add-on, myths still have cosmopolitan characteristics like the statement was presented by Stith Thompson in 1955 that myths are linking with Gods and their behaviors, creative activity, and the general nature of the universe and of the Earth ( Yang, Deming and Jessica 2005 ) . Every civilization involves contexts about Gods and beginnings of universe, the crude mythologies derived from homo ‘s imaginativenesss about nature. Most of myths depict that homo was created by God ; the lone difference is the methods and procedure of creative activity. Therefore, there is one principal God in every cultural mythology, like Jade Emperor in Chinese myth, Odin in Norse myth, Osiris in Egyptian myth and Zeus in Greek myth. The common characteristic exists in the distinguishing mythologies and civilizations for demonstrate some common features of human universe.
Games as a originative industry demand creative activity and imaginativeness, nevertheless the design of games should non be unbelievable. The properties of games are really similar with mythology ‘s which discussed above. This is non a happenstance ; this is why there are so many interior decorators employed fabulous elements into the game design. There are two grounds that games should be inventive and credible.
The first 1 is the intent of playing for inventive characteristic of games. Players are dying for acquiring entrainment from games ; they normally want to acquire different experiences from playing games. If the environment and characters in games are same with existent life, the game will be deadening. There was an article stated that a game is joyful because participants could accept benign stimulation so that participants gain a pleasant feeling and contented emotion from playing, the artworks of games belong to direct stimulation which straight motivate participants ‘ sense of sight, audile sense and esthesia ( Suxihong 2006 ) . The different artworks from existent life in games give participants a sort of different experiences. Imaging a antic manner house and an ordinary house are presented in forepart of your eyes, which one could give you more direct stimulation. The most of replies are the antic one, because it is different from the one we see mundane. More practical images is used in games, more direct stimulation participants could be got. Even a simulating game like series of Sims besides involves other practical elements for giving different experiences to participants.
Another ground is that the game needs to be credible. Credible characteristics are the necessary elements could coerce participants plunging into games. The term of submergence is defined by Jessica and Bridgette ( 2003, p.476 ) is that “ The ability of a game to ‘immerse ‘ a participant in the interface and gameplay. The Holy Grail of online gambling is to wholly plunge a participant in the gameplay to the point that he/she loses path of clip and, in some instances, world during the game session. ” Unreal and unbelievable characters and environment can non do participants to pass a batch of clip on the game. A world background and adopted characters from world could use into games and do a common sense between participants and games. So most of successful games were adopted from existent narratives, the Non-players character, the monsters and the embodiments for participants were altered from fictional characters in mythology. By and large talking, games and mythology have same properties. That the ground mythologies are widely used into game design both in environment scene, background narratives and character designs.
The mythology is localized
The mythology is a mixture of local civilization and people ‘s political orientation of certain clip, so different myths might be barely understood by people from different cultural backgrounds. The forming of myths might be a cardinal to understand why the myth is localized.
First the beginning of mythology is assorted. Some myths are adopted from the narrations of Bible by adding several inventive elements and altered contents of the original Bible. And historical events are another beginning of mythology ; the existent historical instance was rewritten by subsequently people utilizing the signifiers of fables and fabulous traditions which are widely disseminated. Additionally, there are other two characteristics could depict myths which are allegorical and physical, about all the ancient myths are symbolical and involved some educational contents in facets of moral, spiritual or philosophical truth etc ( Thomas 2004 ) .
It is by and large believed that the Chinese mythology originated from the totem of distant Chinese ascendants and fables of ancient folks and normally concentrate on explain rationalize, embellish, humanise, or historicize the fabulous existences ( Williams 2000 1993: 387 ) . Some Chinese myths are another signifier of historical records such as the Romance of the Three Kingdoms which narrated events of Waring States Period in Chinese history, and the mythic character named Yan Di who invented agribusiness in Chinese history. Furthermore, the Chinese myths mirrored contents of faiths ; the construct of three universes that are heaven, Earth and human being in Chinese mythology is coming from Buddha. Many online games which were set in ancient Chinese environment applied the construct of three universes. The characters in these games are by and large separated into three groups which are heavenly existences, Satans and human existences.
The Chinese cultural construct of the harmoniousness between human and Eden is besides reflecting in the local mythology. Satans in mythology are transformed from animate beings and workss so that their visual aspects embody the form of original animate beings or workss. This phenomenon might be different from westerners ‘ attitude to the nature.
From the statement above, we could see the beginning of mythology causes a sort of civilization barrier. Mythologies are formed with local niceties. For illustration, the Chinese mythologies are influenced by local faiths which are Buddha, Taoism and cultural political orientation. The local civilization might find major contents of mythologies. And mythologies were distributing by people in the different periods, during the different historical periods people ‘s ideas were different and in some manner reflected the certain society knowledge. Depends on separating history of civilization, the local mythology is barely understanding by other people who came from different cultural backgrounds.
The Chinese mythology in on-line games
Due to the similar points between mythology and games, they of course combine together that has been verified in chapter 3.3.1. Furthermore, the localisation of myths could do the traditional civilization games more popular in the peculiar country.
In the Chinese on-line game industry, traditional myths are widely used. For illustration, the Chinese celebrated authoritative fictions which are considered to include myths inside are applied into several games that released in Chinese on-line game industry, such as the Romance of the Tree Kingdoms is made into games several times. These games include Biography of the Three Kingdoms Heroes Online ( See Figure 6 ) developed by UserJoy in Taiwan ( UserJoy 2009 ) , Sangokushi Online ( See Figure 7 ) which is history of three lands in English developed by Koei in Japan ( Koei 2009 ) and Shin Sangoku Musou ( See Figure 8 ) which is another popular series of games used the narrative of three lands developed by Koei in Japan ( Koei 2009 ) . Players set up the comprehension of Waring States Period of Chinese history from the contents of these adapted games ; they knew the chief characters of that period such as Guan Yu, Zhuge Liang and the celebrated narratives like Oath of the Peach Garden, Borrowing Arrows with Straw Boats and the Battle of the Red Cliff. Furthermore, the apprehension of traditional liquors in ancient China is indoctrinated, because participants follow the designing game drama which refers to traditional Chinese regulations.
Games help distributing myths to immature people and aliens who have established basic apprehension of traditional mythology or live in different civilization environment so that they could acquire the cognition of peculiar mythology by easy-to-understand methods during playing. Games are a sort of educational merchandises, participants could larn cognition of traditional Chinese civilization and mythology, the visual aspects of traditional characters set up beauty gustatory sensation of ancient China, background narratives give a brief construct to gamers what happened in Chinese history because some myths involve historical events which are employed into games every bit good, game cultural environments supply existent infinite to participants who live into it. The petitions in these games give counsel for stating participants how to populate like a traditional Chinese obeying the antediluvian regulations, imposts and moral norms. In other words, games which applied fabulous contents into could better culturally globalisation and educate traditional civilization utilizing interesting waies.
In order to set up the farther research about Chinese on-line games and civilization, particularly Chinese mythologies, a popular online game named Westward Journey Online three is employed into the survey for acquiring more inside informations about how is the mythology unifying into on-line game design based on Chinese civilization.
The instance survey of the Westward Journey Online three
The debut of the Journey to the West
In this chapter, the Journey to the West will be the chief stuff to be analysed from several points of positions. First, the secret plan of a drama of the original Journey to the West will be presented for set uping basic apprehension for who are non familiar with the ancient authoritative Chinese fiction. At the same clip, the impact of Journey to the West on modern media including Television, films, Games etc besides will be introduced.
Furthermore, a old research by Jinghui ( 2006 ) was applied for showing the important features of Chinese civilization in Journey to the West. The writer originally states the distinguishing characteristics of Chinese and western civilizations from three facets which include the beginning of the universe, consciousness of life and construct of goodness and badness. However, the consequence of Chinese side was employed in this paper.
From analyzing these typical features of the fiction, it is possible happening a deserving consequence of the beginning Chinese civilization looks associating to the Confucianism, Taoism and harmoniousness between human and nature. Move frontward, we could see how to expeditiously utilize these archetypical features into the newest media – art of computing machine games.
The Journey to the West is a cultural span
The Journey to the West has great influences on amusement industry ; the original novel had been adapted into Television plans, sketchs and games. The novel became a span between modern audiences and Chinese traditional civilization. The well-known Television programmes named Xiyouji which was screened in CCTV in 1988 got a high repute at that clip, most of Chinese people had the memory to watch the celebrated Television play plan, and so the subject vocal of Xiyouji88 version besides gave a great influence to the 80s coevals during the period. And the subsequences were shot in 2000 which got more proficient back uping doing the fantasy Television plan more attractive.
The authoritative fiction which is originally based on Chinese civilization gave a great influence on the media industry in eastern part. There are several on-line games in Chinese are originally set the background form the original fiction – Journey to the West, including Westward Journey Fantasy Online ( NetEase 2009 ) which is one of most popular online games in China ( See Figure 9 ) , XiyouQji ( See Figure 10 ) refers to Q Memoir of west journey ( Guangyu Online 2009 ) and the Pocket Journey West ( See Figure 11 ) ( Perfect universe 2009 ) etc.
The property of cultural span in Journey to the West gives the survey a necessary cause to look into the fabulous novel. Why the authoritative novel could be of course adapted into games is deserving to reply through analysis on the original novel. The tendency of probe offers a way to blossom relationship between culturally mythology and games.
Beginning of the Journey to the West
What are the separating nucleus cultural values of Chinese features which have being expressed in the fiction? The inquiry perchance could be answered by analyzing the original fiction. In the every first topographic point, the brief content of narrative should be presented for puting up a general comprehension. The Journey to the West was written by Wu Cheng’en in the sixteenth century. The narrative happened in the Tang dynasty. The chief characters include Tang Xuanzhang – Tripitaka, Sun Wukong – Monkey King, Zhu Bajie – Hog of the Eight Prohibitions, Sha Wujing – Sand Awakened to Purity and the white dragon-horse. The four characters formed a squad for conveying back Buddhist Bibles from the west – Vulture Peak in India to China. On their journey, they experienced eighty-one catastrophes. Finally, they successful obtained the Buddhist Bibles and all of them became immortals.
The paper would wish to analyze the authoritative fiction from three Fieldss that are the historical context, characters and the manner or mission to west. First of wholly, the beginning of the authoritative fiction demands to be presented and clarified. The paper is non look intoing the exact clip and event occurrence in the book, but the general event related to the classical creative activity demand to be displayed. Because it was non merely coming from imaginativenesss, there were existent historical events as the footing of background narrative of the Journey to the West.
The beginning of the Journey to the West is a life named A Biography of the Tripitaka Master of the Great Ci’en Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty which was written by two adherents of Xuan Zang ( Yuen 2008 ) . After many old ages spread by narrators among the people, the narrative was handed down and improved for a long clip. The brief debut of historical papers could be read in Appendix 5. The existent event happened a long clip before the classical fiction – Journey to the West. The writer Wu Chengen combined his experiences and several other elements together to make the celebrated narrative after several old ages when the Xuanzang backed from India. Wu added many fantasy factors into the narrative doing the secret plan and character more attractive.
The 2nd facet demand to be presented is the characters in the fiction. Respects to characters, it is of import to advert the squad building. The squad is made by four major characters, and they play different duties in the teamwork and the squad involves a clear hierarchal tree. The leader of the squad is the maestro – Xuanzang. The fellowship members are the adherents under his controlling. The adherents have to esteem the maestro Xuanzhang. Xuanzang ‘s responsibility is declaiming Bibles, he do n’t necessitate to make any plants such as looking for nutrient, rinsing the apparels even non necessitate to steer the right way because the first adherent Sun Wukong will happen a way.
And in these learners, it is besides involved the clear class of position. Sun Wukong has right to necessitate others to make something, and he was the chief force for contending. The 2nd adherent is Zhu Bajie who is normally responsible for cooking and murdering smaller devils. The 3rd one is Sha Wujing, who has less of import duty ; he merely needs to maintain eyes on baggage. The 4th one is the carnal character, the white dragon-horse, who is the 3rd prince of the Dragon-King. He was rescued by Guanyin, a heavenly being, holding a great power from condemning to decease because of puting fire to his male parent ‘s great pearl. The white Equus caballus has non any right in the squad, he is merely a saddle horse for the maestro.
Therefore, from the duties of the squad members we could see the position of each member. A clear division of labor specific duties could be presented. This is determined by the hierarchal construction of the squad. Additionally, these characteristics demonstrate the “ Li ” in beginning of Confucianism in the Chinese civilization. Chinese households besides have built-in order, every thing has their ain place in the universe, and so make the relationships of human existences.
The major four characters involve separating features. Here the article ignore the carnal character – the prince of the Dragon – King, because he is a little character and non of import. The maestro Xuanzang is craven, clemency, loyal and devoted in the narrative. He marched frontward bravely for happening the Bibles. Therefore, he is a true character. Xuanzang could be easy deceived in the Chapter 27 named Monkey Hit Lady White Bone Thrice in English. Xuanzang was fooled by the devil and driving Sun Wukong back place. At the terminal, Xuanzang paid the monetary value, he was captured by devils about was eaten. The narrative demonstrates Xuanzang ‘s two dimensions ; he is excessively merciful to be easy deceived, but he has a good purpose which becomes a failing.
The following one major character will be analysed is the first adherent of Xuanzang, the Monkey King. In some manner, he is more celebrated than his maestro. There are several independent narratives which descried Monkey King ‘s experiences before meeting Xuanzang traveling to the West. He was born from rock beside the east ocean ; therefore he is considered absorbing all of the universe elements. After his great attempts on analyzing 72 transmutations, he became a strongest character in the squad.
There are three chief things have to be introduced for Monkey King. First one is the appellation of “ Great Sage Equal to Heaven ” which was named by him. This action demonstrates his wild aspirations, naif features and disdain for all ( Hujian 2008 ) . After slighted by heavenly existences in the Eden, he decided giving himself the hyperbolic repute name for deriving regard and contenting self-pride. The name is empty but he cherished it and asked the Jade emperor rewarded the name to him. The mental position displays his puerility.
Second thing is the procedure of larning the art of the Tao and 72 transmutations. His original purpose for acquisition is that he wants to acquire the secrets of immortality the same intent with Taoism ‘s philosophy in China. His first maestro taught him the 72 transmutations for altering the visual aspects and kernel of himself for hedging calamities in the life. It is illustrated the ageless pursuit of Taoists and ancient Chinese people. In the past the Chinese people believes that making good and roll uping virtue could acquire length of service, people ever expects immortality. Monkey King besides is no exclusion. However, his advantage is his great doggedness during the acquisition. The more backbreaking preparation, the more Monkey King kept larning.
These narratives shape Monkey King ‘s failings and strong points that are naif and puerility which in same manner is a failing in existent complex society, heroism and hardworking.
Finally, Monkey King ‘s arm, the Golden Cudgel has a close relationship with the five elements which is the natural scientific discipline in ancient China. The ancient Chinese separated the universe into five elements ; most of Chinese believe the five elements made the whole universe. Detailss of five component theory are including in Appendix 6.
Respects to the Monkey King ‘s narrative, the five elements were applied into the authoritative fiction and several online games which ‘s background narrative came from traditional Chinese civilization for planing some game regulations. Monkey King ‘s aureate cudgel that locates in the seabed belongs to the Metal component, so the aureate cudgel is a metal in H2O. And Monkey King lives in the water-covered cave ; he besides is a metal component in H2O. They act in unison. By and large talking, Monkey King is a important character in the Journey to the West. The writer gave a great attending on this character and makes him rich and world.
The 3rd adherent is the Zhu Bajie. Like the first adherent, Zhu Bajie besides has many independent narratives were adopted into Television programmes and sketchs such as Spring Brillian Zhu Bajie which is a comedy Television play plan and broadcasted in 2000 in China and Falling Zhu Bajie from Heaven ( See Figure 15 ) which was produced by Jiang Toon life and broadcasted in China Central Television.
Zhu Bajie besides is a rich character which involves failing and advantages. His failing is avaricious particularly on nutrient, pruriency and lazy. And his advantage is loyal. Zhu Bajie is originally Tenpou Gensui in the Eden ; nevertheless he was punished to bump down to earth because of dawdling the Goddess of the Moon. However, in the procedure of his reborn to the Earth, he made a error going a hog. During the Journey, Zhu Bajie was responsible for protect maestro Xuanzang utilizing his 36 transmutations abilities. Although his abilities are non plenty strong, he besides earnestly executed every undertaking. His loyal bosom is the strongest in the squad. At the same clip, he normally created comedic figure in the narrative. That why kids audiences like him more than others.
The 3rd adherent Sha Monk is a sort of shadow character. However he besides involves two sides ‘ features which are honest and incapable. His duty is taking attention of the baggage. He about has no independent narratives. His bing serves for other characters.
In add-on, the manner to west is another of import content in the authoritative fiction. Those are the intent, path, formulaic episodic construction combat, 81 catastrophes and concluding stoping ( See Appendix 7 ) .
Lei, an Mphil in Institute of East China University of Science and Technology, discussed the connotative significances of heavenly fable utilizing the Journey to the West and the Lord of the Rings as two samples in Chinese civilization and western civilization. He states the distinguishing characteristics of Chinese and western civilizations from three facets which include the beginning of the universe, consciousness of life and construct of goodness and badness ( Jinghui 2006 ) . Following his points of position, my survey besides used the three facets to analysis the original novel from different angles.
Respects to the beginning of the universe, Chinese believe human existences and every thing in the universe derive from nature, homo can non be above the nature. Therefore, in the Taoism and Buddhism that is localized see the consciousness is non merely belonged to human existences.
Buddha ever said everything, the everything here include non merely human but besides other animate beings, workss and anything else in the universe. The belief reflects in the Journey to the West becomes that the forms of many characters in the fiction displacement from flowers, forests, inserts, fishers and other animate beings even the natural phenomena. For illustration, the Buffalo Demon-King comes from the form of bulls. And the names of devils in Journey to the West could show the relationship of nature and human, such as Spider devils, Centipede Demon, Azure Lion Demon, Lady Earth Flow, King of Southern Mountains and King of Coldguard, heatguard, dusguard etc. The four chief characters besides transform from animate beings and nature, the monkey, hog, sand and Equus caballus.
Therefore, in the fiction, all the things in nature have their ain consciousness, and they could go a human form after tough pattern. The Chinese civilization emphasizes on natural development and every thing has spiritualisms, the relation between nature and homo is equal, the same significance with the harmoniousness between adult male and nature.
In the procedure of development of Chinese civilization, it treats the nature has their ain consciousness and the relation between adult male and nature is equal. So the natural scientific discipline can non be significantly developed like western universe in Chinese, while the humanity topics could acquire successful achievement in China. And this characteristic of esteeming nature besides could be reflected by the traditional Chinese medical specialty. The Chinese usage botanic roots, flowers and animate beings as the drugs to handle people, it is developed for 1000s of old ages. And Chinese people believe Earth is the best shelter for dead people. The beginning of construct of traditional Chinese medical specialty comes from the construct of harmoniousness between human existences and nature.
The following point which Lei respects is the consciousness of life. Everlasting life is a important content in Taoism which is a native faith in China. Polishing pellets for deriving everlasting life is an aim of most belivers in Taoism. The first emperor of China named Qin shihuang sent 1000s of male childs and misss goto the East China Sea for looking for praying the supernatural existences to give him the Elixir of life. And in the Journey to the West, Sun Wukong was besides looking for gifted individuals to learn him enchantments for everlasting life. The male monarch of Monk land followed the secret formula came from witchery roll uping one 1000 and one hundred 11 Black Marias of kids for polishing the Elixir of life in the novel. All of the above antediluvian fictions, history and faith demonstrates the importance of life in Chinese civilization. Chinese people believe that the life is more than other things. There is nil without life. Game developers might hold an attending on this difference for farther developing undertakings for mark audiences in game market place.
The last thing is construct of goodness and badness. In the Journey to the West the integrity of believing theoretical account is displayed. Good and badness is non against each other but could be transformed between each other and mutable. Most of devils which are bad characters in the fiction are the relations or retainers of heavenly existences which represent good. The good and badness normally have certain relationship. And the evil ne’er can non be conquered. All the evil devils could be defeated or reformed to a good 1. The stoping of immorality is going to a good one, this stoping named Parinirvana. This point besides could be reflected in some picture games.
Online game-Westward Journey Online three
The developer of the series of Westward Journey Online
Following the chief tendency of using the traditional Chinese civilization backgrounds into on-line games, the series of Westward Journey Online games were successful in the Chinese on-line game market, and brought immense net income to Netease. Harmonizing to the study on on-line games by Baidu informations analysis Centre, the Westward Journey Fantasy is judged to be the top 10 MMORPG games in the first half twelvemonth in 2009 ( Baidu 2009 ) . Its attending rate by participants was 18.54 per centums at the 2nd topographic point in the top 10 Q version MMORPGs. The first 1 was WenDao in Chinese busying 19.32 per centums ( See appendix 8 ) .
Before the recent version Westward Journey Online three Netease released three other MMO games based on the background of Journey to the West. They are named Westward Journey Fantasy, Westward Journey Online two and the 1 named Westward Journey unofficial life in proving right now. The most popular one is the series of Westward Journey Online games.
Dinging Lei who is the Chief executive officer of Netease said the public presentation of Westward Journey Fantasy Online demonstrates its popularity, at the same clip shows the game has immense Numberss of participants under the charging system during Chinese clip… ” The Netease is the advanced cyberspace company in China, its major concern range is development and publication patented online games. Net incomes of Netease chiefly came from the operation of on-line games. The entire one-year income of Netease was 30 100s 1000000s RMB ( 4.36 100s 1000000s dollars ) by the terminal of 31 Dec 2008. And the maintained net incomes was 16 100s 1000000s RMB ( 2.34 100s 1000000s dollars ) in 2008 ( Netease 2009 ) . Most of net incomes came from operation of several independently developing on-line games such as Westward Journey Fantasy Online and Westward Journey Online? and three. For the ground that we can see the Westward Journey Fantasy and the series of Westward Journey Online are a sort of successful form in alone Chinese on-line game industry. It is deserving to look into the successful case for deriving some inspirations for future game development.
First, it has to clear up the timeline of merchandises belonging to Netease. The first version of Westward Journey Online was released on December 2001 that was one innovator of Chinese on-line games during that period. Then the Westward Journey Online two was the first successful runing online games made in China on August 2002. It created a newest record that it involved 890,000 participants online at the same clip since operating. On January 2004, the Westward Journey Fantasy Online was released ; the figure of participants online at the same clip was more than 2320,000, furthermore the figure of enrollment participants exceeded 2 1000000s. The record was kept in the same sort of merchandise until the terminal of 2008. The newest 1 called Westward Journey Online three was runing on 12 September 2007 ; the game engine was independently developed by Netease and back uping multiple 2D unit of ammunition system games. The artworks of the game reached highest quality among 2D games. The Westward Journey three could be considered as an AAA game made in China ( Netease 2009 ) .
Respects on the original on-line game, Westward Journey Online three was set a background narrative based on the original authoritative novel the Journey to the West. Players could happen monkey male monarch and other original characteristics in the game such as Mountain of Flowers and Fruits where monkey king lives has been used in the game. However, developers added some other cultural characteristics into the game every bit good. So it is considered as a merchandise of assorted traditional Chinese civilization based on content of Journey to the West. In the research, the background narrative of the game will be presented at the first position. Some connexion between original fiction and the modern game content, farther more the cultural influences might be discovered during the examining.
Depending on the content of debut on the official web site of Netease, the background narrative of the game is described from three facets which are overview of the universe, the beginning of civilizations and narrative content.
The first content is the universe, a rich Chinese civilization characteristics are able to be found in the few words description. The universe of the game was set as three boundaries and four continents that are the same names with original fiction. They are east continent ( Dong Sheng Shen Zhou in Chinese ) , west continent ( Eleven Niu He Zhou in Chinese ) , south continent ( Nan Zhan Bu Zhou in Chinese ) and north continent ( Bei Ju Lu Zhou ) . The beginning of four continents came from the Buddhism fable. The universe was created by Pan Gu, a Godhead of existence in Chinese mythology. And three boundaries are human existences, who pursue the harmoniousness between human existences mentioning to humaneness and righteousness, heavenly existences seek ego release mentioning to cultivate oneself harmonizing to a spiritual philosophy, devils chase original nature mentioning to freedom. So that three different civilizations in the game are generated,
Apart from the universe scene, the historic period related to Chinese history. The narrative of the game is happened in Tang Dynasty which is a bally clip in Chinese history. The economic system is booming and society is steady, people begin to reflect the strivings which wars and catastrophes brought in earlier. And citizens expect the universe filled harmoniousness and friendly relationship, hence, this state of affairs gives Buddhism an chance to distribute in China. The journey to happen Bible of Buddha begins from the start point. The scene affects characters properties, universe ‘s construction and giving a rich environment to the local participants.
The 2nd portion of background narrative of the game is about the beginning of civilization. The description of original civilization in the game imitates the features of the clip when the authoritative novel was written. At that clip three faiths merged together, the different thing is that three faiths were employed into three races which are human existences, heavenly existences and Satans.
The three races have sameness and differentia, the sameness is that all of them wish to achieve the manner ; the differentia is that they have different methods to make the purpose. The procedure of Human being to achieve the manner in the game is to cultivate the moral ego, modulate the household, maintain the province justly and do all peaceable under the direction of Confucianism. Celestial existences cultivate themselves harmonizing to the Buddhism, the personal cultivation is more of import for heavenly existences. And Satans normally were created by enriching themselves mentally and physically, they believe everything is following the jurisprudence of nature, they are wishful to populate at easiness. Meanwhile three races are synergistic each other. All characters both participants and NPC are travelers who solve jobs during the journey and travel in front for their purposes.
The 3rd portion is separated into three subjects. It chiefly introduces the get downing narrative of the game. The first phase is about the birth of sprit rock. The narrative is combined the original authoritative novel the Journey to the West with a films named Chinese Odyssey which was an version from the authoritative novel. In field footings, the narrative of the game is based on the original fiction ; a small difference is that it adds a love narrative between monkey male monarch and Zixia fairy. Finally, the narrative of game encourages participants to get down the journey for prosecuting their ain fates.
From the background of the game, it can be cognizant that the game involves rich traditional Chinese cultural characteristics. Basically, the game oriented to the Chinese participants, most of contents are adapted from the authoritative novel the Journey to the West. At the same clip, it added some other elements which could run into modern participant ‘s outlooks such as love narrative and antic races for playing so that the modern participant could hold different experiences from playing in the practical antediluvian universe. It can be said Westward Journey three is a successful mixture of traditional Chinese civilization and modern-day art. However, Westward Journey three is merely familiar with Chinese participants or who have rich Chinese civilization background. It might non be understood by other participants who have a different civilization background. The cultural barriers might be caused by archetypical characteristics between different civilizations.
There are eight chief characters which could be used as embodiments by participants in Westward Journey three. Although all of the characters are fabulous, they involve world more or less, such as Zhuxietiele ‘s narrative involved a existent historical event about defying Turkic in Chinese history. Every character has their ain narrative and features and separating visual aspects depending on the cultural beginnings and populating environment. Assorted cultural characteristics besides are applied into the characters ‘ design and their background narratives. The character named Zhuxietiele belongs to Shatuo race ; his visual aspects use several characteristics of wild folks in ancient North of China. One other characteristic character is called Painting Soul ; he was given birth by Mr. Black Pine and The 3rd White Lady. Therefore, his visual aspect is designed as a coon bear which makes up of two colorss black and white. And a harmoniousness between human and nature is besides demonstrated in one of the character ‘s narrative. One of heavenly existences named soldierly honor divinity who was set as a boy of the Jade Emperor became a tree after forestalling human universe was flood by Dragon King in East Ocean. The transmutation between human existences and nature is possible in ancient Chinese mythology under the influence of Confucianism.
Most of characters have non connexions with the Journey to the West, but the design of kins in the game is establishing on the original fiction. It can merely aware from their names such as Huasheng Temple where the Xuanzhang began his journey in history, Fangcun Mountain where Monkey male monarch learned the 72 transmutations, the feudal functionary of Tang Dynasty, Wuzhuang Temple where is a Taoist temple for seting immortal fruits in novel, Mount Putuo where is one of Buddhist sacred musca volitanss and The Cave of Silken Web where is appeared in authoritative novel etc.
The adherents of different kins have different abilities using into conflicts. Players could take their front-runner kin to fall in, after fall ining into the kin participants could acquire alone abilities which clans give them. The practical enchantments are design associating to the features of each kin in existent historic context and civilization. The game employs the five elements into each kin ‘s abilities. Air spells is the unique for Wuzhuang Temple ‘s adherents, strong opposition enchantments is belonged to the Cave of Silken Web ‘s adherents, Water Spells is for Dragon ‘s Palace in East Ocean, Fire spells is using by Mount Putuo ‘s adherents e