Franz Liszt ( AD 1811-1886 ) was a great Magyar composer, piano player, music director, Romantic composers and one of most outstanding representatives in the early Romantic Era. During his life-time, he created a great trade of piano and symphonic music plants in a broad assortment of manner and signifiers.
He achieved an consequence of orchestral music with his piano, led the piano playing techniques to an unprecedented degree and made a great part in researching and developing the potency of pianos and piano plants. In his composings, there is ever a clear will or spirit of seeking after brightness, freedom and ideal. Liszt ‘s S.178, Piano Sonata in B child, is a typical illustration of this spirit.
His Piano Sonata in B child is a monumental work busying a particular place in 19 century piano history. Like any other echt chef-d’oeuvre, there has been a great trade of unfavorable judgment and argument over it of all time since it foremost came into being. Clara Schumann one time described the sonata as ‘obscure, about noiseaˆ¦ ‘ . Such unfavorable judgment was, of class, unjust. But it did reflects a fact that even so great a piano player like Clara Schumann could be baffled with such a unprecedented work that was excessively hard to understand.
It is interesting, nevertheless, to see that after about 150 old ages the chef-d’oeuvre, to which Liszt fastidiously devoted his bosom and mastermind but the music unfavorable judgment circle of the clip it was born dedicated its about nem con negative remark, has long established itself as one of the most fierily discussed subjects in music theory, public presentation and unfavorable judgment circles today. Nowadays, there emerge one after another theoretical analyses, widely divergent versions of public presentation, and legion music critics over it. More and more musical bookmans start to analyse it from every fibre of it. It, being widely considered a standard of a piano player ‘s capableness of managing big plants, has become one of the favourite sonatas in more and more piano players ‘ repertory.
The single-movement Piano Sonata in B Minor successfully takes up the construction of a cyclic signifier typically seen in symphonic verse forms. Its construction realized a cyclic signifier based on a individual motion, i.e. by virtuousness of the staged narrative in development procedure and the map passage in some parts of the sonata, the individual motion besides presents the rule of ‘the combination of single motions ‘ . On the other manus, as those transitions that maps as motions of a cyclic signifier after map passage are non the logical phases of the development of a major subject itself, but appear as “ Episode subject ” , there comes a sort of vacillation or even break in the development of the major subject. The distinguishable features in the development of subjects of the B child are clear groundss of Liszt ‘s alone manner and music ideal.
Life and Musical Works
Franz Liszt ‘s Life
Franz List was born in the small town of Raiding in the Kingdom of Hungary nearby Austria boundary. In 1821, he moved to Vienna with his households where he received soft lessons from Carl Czerny and composing lessons from Antonio Salieri. His superb life as a piano player began at age 11. After he moved to Paris, under the influence of Gallic Revolution and Romantic Movement, he took a great involvement in Chopin, Berlioz and Paganini ‘s plants and learnt a batch from their accomplishments. Before 1848, he toured in European states and was applauded everyplace he went as a piano ace of extraordinary accomplishments. During this touring phase, he chiefly focused on composing piano plants. From 1848 to 1861, he acted as music director at tribunal concerts and the music manager of the tribunal of Weimar. During this period of clip, he besides invested a batch of his clip and attempts in patronizing and advancing immature composers and played their latest plants at concerts. In 1854, he took portion in the organisation of ‘New Weimar Association ‘ and several old ages subsequently, once more, the organisation of ‘Whole German Music Association ‘ , doing Weimar one of the music and cultural centres of Europe at that clip. During his life in Weimar, he completed most of his symphonic music plants. Disappointed at the defeat of his matrimony to Princess Carolyne Wittgenstein and the difference over an opera public presentation, he moved to Rome and received a minor order place in a Catholic church. During this clip, he still took portion in charity concerts and made regular journeys between Rome, Weimar and Budapest for composing music and instruction pupils. Liszt ‘s etudes, e.g. Mazeppa and Feux Follets, are so technically hard and thwarting that his pupils would name them “ Nonnatural Etudes ” . All such etudes are full of presto octaves and assorted ace hard ‘big leap intervals ‘ and arpeggios. There was a charming power in Liszt ‘s virtuosic accomplishments which earned him such honest rubrics like “ No.1 Pianist in Europe ” and “ King of Pianists ” . On the other manus, Liszt was a outstanding composer and left the universe many chef-d’oeuvres like: S.178, Piano Sonata in B child, S.108, Faust Symphony, S.111, Zweite Mephistopheles Waltz, the Old ages of Pilgrimage Suite, S.124, Piano Concerto No. 1 in E level and S.125, Piano Concerto No. 2 in A major, etc.
Liszt ‘s Musical Creations – Piano Works and Piano-playing in Liszt ‘s Romantic Era
Taking a expression at the long history of universe music development, one can easy happen out that the nineteenth Century was an extraordinary age of artistic creative activity. During that clip, along with the rise of Romanticism, many new manners and content were breathed into musical creative activity. A configuration of music mastermind led by Berlioz, Schumann, Chopin and Liszt were born in the early yearss of nineteenth Century. The emotional, free and energetic manners in their romantic creative activities stood in crisp contrast to the exact, elegant and dignified manners of classical music prevailing in the old century.
When Romanticism established itself in Western musical universe as an independent school, piano music besides entered into the premier clip of its development. There was non merely prosperity in solo concerts but besides an increasing demand in the society for piano players. As a consequence, piano players who made a life by drama piano emerged in big Numberss, a phenomenon adding high spot on the development of romantic music. Apart from that, piano accomplishments witnessed a fast progress and development, excessively, which gave rise to a scope of public presentation manners having virtuosic piano playing accomplishments. From the position of cultural development, in the yearss after the rise of Romanticism and Gallic Revolution when the society was thrown into the turbulency by the struggle between the Restoration and anti-restoration of monarchy, there was a strong psychological demand in the society for showing the unrest emotions of persons. Consequently, the artistic images in this period of clip were largely enthusiastic and emotional. Although the involvement of different composers varied, they did portion some common land in their plants and their attacks of composing, i.e. an overall romantic music manner.
Musicians recommending Romanticism attached great importance to making music images with alone personality. Flamboyant individuality became the lone manner of the clip. Equally far as the proficient side of romantic musical plant was concerned, although lyricality remained one the most of import features of piano plants, the most obvious characteristic in such creative activity was composers ‘ chase of alterations in harmoniousnesss and the agreement of colourss of sounds, e.g. chromatic harmoniousnesss and the application of transition of closely related key. In footings of musical signifiers, the most dramatic phenomenon was that piano pieces became the major bearer of romantic composers to show their tempers and gaining control instant emotional experiences. In fact, piano pieces were one of most alone musical signifiers in the nineteenth Century.
The Features of Liszt ‘s Piano Music
Liszt ‘s piano public presentation manner changed as clip went by. Each of his new technique would travel through a long period of readying before predominating. The key to understand Liszt ‘s piano public presentation manners is to first of all understand the general features of each development phase of his piano public presentation. It is of import to cognize when and where each phase was started and ended, the ‘Childhood ‘ of each manner, and the turns and troubles in each development phase, etc.
Early on Plants
Liszt ‘s earliest piano composing was a fluctuation on a celebrated walk-in by Diabelli. There was an adventuring narrative about the beginning of the composing. In 1820, Anton Diabelli, an Austrian music publishing house, invited 50 composers to compose a fluctuation based on one of his walk-in. Then he combined their parts into an anthology. Those celebrated composers who responded his invitation include Schubert, Czerny, Webber, etc. Liszt ‘s composing was listed as Variation No.24 in the anthology.
When composing this fluctuation, Liszt was still a pupil of Antonio Salieri who was besides the instructor of Ludwig Van Beethoven. From this piece we can see that at that clip Liszt already had clear and precise apprehension over every component of music. It ‘s obvious that he already received from Salieri a systematic instruction of musical theories, larn how to read tonss and had done some patterns. The characteristics of the fluctuation resemble that of Czerny ‘s plants. In 1820 ‘s, music pieces of etude manner was really popular. Although we can barely happen in this fluctuation any typical characteristic unique to Liszt yet, it is a strong cogent evidence demoing small Liszt had already acquired the basic techniques of composing.
In short, the characteristics of Liszt ‘s composings in this period can be summarized as: following old tradition by copying common illustrations, regulations and attacks. Clear grounds can be found in his S.136, Etude ( First Version ) , S.151, Allegro di bravura, S.152, Rondo di bravura, S.150, Impromptu brilliant Sur diethylstilbestrols themes de Rossini et Spontini, and S.153, Scherzo in G child, every bit good as some other pieces. It is merely apprehensible that before anyone can truly chief every facets of his undertaking, he ‘d first of all go through a great trade troubles in patterns and theoretical geographic expedition.
This phase was Liszt ‘s personal Sturm and Drang motion. During this period of clip, he broke off from conventions and pioneered piano symphonic musics. One of representative plants of this period was his Etudes ( Second Version ) , S.140, Etudes d’execution transcendante d’apres Paganini, S. 157, Romantic Fantasies on Two Swiss Tunes and many other phantasies and written texts. The most of import one was Liszt ‘s piano written text of a symphonic music by Berlioz, S.120, Grande Fantaisie Symphonique on subjects from Berlioz Lelio. Liszt ‘s piano written texts were nil like the bulk of agreements popular at that clip in basic characteristics. Liszt even compiled them under the name of ‘Piano Score ‘ to show the cardinal differences between his written texts and those conventional agreements which were ill-famed for the dull and hapless usage of piano vocabulary. With his S.120, Fantasy Symphony, Liszt blazed a new trail. He non merely provided piano symphonic musics with a musical skeleton, but besides transplanted into it a great trade of inside informations, harmoniousnesss and beat, merely like reproducing a piece of sacred lection. The ground why Liszt would name his written texts as “ piano mark ” was that he wanted to do clear his purpose for making so, i.e. in a measure by measure manner, bit by bit transfer the brilliant power and munificent sounds of an orchestra onto a piano.
Liszt ‘s Piano Score rendered orchestral narrative in so perfect, imaginative and original a manner that it inspired Schumann to compose his most celebrated article on symphonic music. In this article, Schumann analyzed Liszt ‘s written texts and for the first clip in history used the term “ orchestral attack for piano ” . In fact, Berlioz had already laid the first basis of “ orchestral attacks for piano ” with his piano mark, Op. 14, Symphony Fantastique. The constitution of orchestral attack means a cardinal reform in soft art. Since such reform was based on researching the potency of piano, there came a helpful tool for many educational intents.
Clear Piano Performance and the Development of Programmatic Music
The subject of this period in Liszt ‘s life was to developing and polishing the orchestral attacks for his piano public presentation and composing. This phase was dominated by the rule of ‘energy-saving ‘ , i.e. seek to avoid any unneeded techniques. It was the most of import period of clip in Liszt ‘s musical life.
Here, I ‘d wish to analyse Liszt ‘s public presentation manner by taking his nonnatural etudes as illustrations. The original rubric of Liszt ‘s etudes would frequently take to misconstruing. Many people tend to misidentify them as the most hard etudes. But Liszt himself thought his etudes had a more profound and empyreal significance. Harmonizing to Liszt, his public presentation demands on playing his etudes should non be narrowly interpreted as taking at proficient flawlessness or the capacity of managing the most hard composings. Alternatively, it should take to the true flawlessness of look, i.e. adept plenty to clearly convey out all the colourss and freshness of a music work. When playing piano, a piano player must believe over the empyreal and exalted side of the composing and do piano playing techniques nil more than an assistance to uncover the poetic images in the music. This was the highest degree of piano public presentation in Liszt ‘s head.
Programmatic music is the bearer that Liszt used to unite poesy and music, escalate the power of ideas and feelings in a music work and do music easier to understand for general populace. Liszt thought that a programmatic music must first of all have a ‘definite plan note ‘ or, as he put in another manner, use an easy-to-understand linguistic communication to narrate. With the aid of such preliminaries, a composer can accomplish following aims:
To show music before audiences in such a manner that they non merely go cognizant of the construction of a music work, but besides pay equal attending to the thoughts expressed through the continuity of music ;
To explicate in a poetic manner contents of a music work which are hard to convey through the music or service as a addendum of music ;
To steer audiences ‘ attending to the right paths, i.e. utilize a verse form to construe a music work, supply a clear direction on the thoughts the composer seeking to show in his work and usher audiences right in forepart of the most of import elements of the music ;
To assist audiences better understand music by linking music and other artistic signifiers, i.e. present audiences to a assortment of humanistic disciplines and ideas. It is obvious that what Liszt tried to make was to use the rule of ‘content and signifier are inseparable ‘ to programmatic music. Liszt believed that a plan note was desirable merely when it could run into the demand of conveying poetic images. Alternatively of associating musical images with ‘external images ‘ , a plan note must pervade through musical images, unite them and do them a integrity in rigorous and definite signifiers. Therefore, plan notes became a basic poetic tool to specify the overall construction of a composing, the development of a subject, the agreement of a motivation, and the elusive fluctuation of colourss.
Therefore, it can be said that acknowledging the integrity of poesy and music is the start point of Liszt to compose programmatic music and determines the orientation of his plan notes. Perfect presentation of his acknowledgment can be found in his Old ages of Pilgrimage Suite.
When Liszt eventually settled down after he moved to Weimar, he committed himself to the concluding alteration of his Old ages of Pilgrimage Suite. One of distinguishable characteristics of the suite is that there must be a verse form before every piece of music that either instructs on how to play the piece or explains its significance. These composings are more than studies of beautiful landscapes. They are descriptions of assorted events an creative person experienced and the creative person ‘s personal contemplations on these events from the position of empyreal ideal. The first thing Liszt wanted to accomplish in his programmatic music was the complete integrity of music and its plan notes, nil more, nil less. In his head, music is non merely an look of the composer ‘s temper but besides a elaborate description of assorted scenes. Liszt declined any repeat of sounds and ever sought for greater flawlessness and smoother narrative of tunes. To recognize his ideal, he abandoned old attacks having brassy effects and the maltreatment of musical stuffs and tried to salvage proficient stuffs every bit much as possible and focused on doing best usage of proficient stuffs in his composings. He tried difficult to show his thoughts in a clear, converting but easy-to-understand manner, hunt for in his composing musical images and looks suited for this intent, and extinguish any detachment between musical thoughts and their looks.
In my sentiment, among all Liszt ‘s piano works, his S.178, Piano Sonata in B child can outdo stand for his composing attacks. The sonata occupies a particular place in the nineteenth Century piano composings. Today, it is often played on assorted competition and piano concerts.
The Composition and Performance of Liszt ‘s S.178, Piano Sonata in B Minor
Liszt ‘s life-time about covered the full nineteenth Century. When he was immature, he actively participated into 1830 and 1848 Gallic Revolutions. In his old age, nevertheless, he gave up all those radical ideas and turned to faith, and, even became an Abbe . Such contradiction weighed on his position of the universe and his composings. Often we can see in his plants such contradictions as: On the one manus, there are assurance, love and enthusiasm, on the other, there are denying of assurance, mocking at love and depressionaˆ¦.It is difficult to happen in his plants any clear reply to these contradictions. As one of the most outstanding composing in Liszt ‘s piano composings, the piano sonata in B child is a profound contemplation of both the contradiction in the composer ‘s position of universe and the contradiction of political orientations in European intellectuals. In this sonata, there are deepest ideas, most intricate construction and highly complicated narrative logic. In a word, it is an model work that can to the full show the manner and features of Liszt ‘s composing.
The Structure of Musical Form
Unlike the sonata signifier in Classical epoch, Liszt ‘s Piano Sonata in B Minor is a single-movement piano sonata composed of four parts, i.e. expounding, development, palingenesis and finale.
Exposition, Bar 1-204
i??1i?‰Introduction, Bar 1-7
At Lento assai pacing, the music begins with a slow and down tone. Although the falling 2nd tune in conjunct gesture has merely seven notes, five of them are chromatic tones. Next, the 5-bar tune makes another falling second in conjunct gesture. There is merely a small alteration, two chromatic tones, in the tune. But these two chromatic tones conveying a sense of tenseness into this still and down debut. Bar 1-3 sounds like in C child. Bar 4-6 is supposed to be in G child but there is no certainty of it. The debut ends in G. Although non a long debut, it does n’t come on along with its quinine water. Uncertain manner and key of the really beginning of the music cast a dramatic colour on the full work.
i??2i?‰Principal Theme, Bar 8-81
When the music enters into chief subject, the pacing and beat are changed, excessively. As a consequence, a forceful and strong chief subject is brought approximately and the personality of musical image is vividly defined. Accompanied by back-to-back springs, the subject develops along a turn overing tune line. Rhythm is accented to bespeak the instability and tenseness in the subject. The bass in saloon 14 is presented in a tone of sneering or mocking. The chief subject begins with a house and powerful tune and ends with a tune full of contradiction and uncertainty. The Two conflicting elements of the subject leave a great room for farther development. The chief subject is composed of three phases, phase I ( bar 8-31 ) , phase II ( saloon 8-17, a statement of the subject ) and phase III ( saloon 18-31, developed via sequence ) . In melodious transition, go uping major second and the descending texture move apart in opposite waies, as if seeking to interrupt away from some sort of bondage. Then, in saloon 30, the 2nd component of the subject appears. And so F-sharp tone is stressed and become dominant in B child. In saloon 32-35, the subject is stated in B child on the quinine water and the two conflicting factors begin contending with each other which is developed by agencies of repeat and sequence. Bar 36-39 realizes a 4th sequence of the subject which is followed by a series of harmonic sequence that ruins the key antecedently established wholly. Bar 51 is a texture of broken chords of 2nd harmonic relation to organize a half-tone rise line. In saloon 51, continual syncopated beat from left-hand portion adds more tenseness to the music. While conjunct gesture is go uping, dynamic is improved. As a consequence, the subject appears in B-flat major strongly. In saloon 55-81, the re-statement of the subject is full of dynamic, merely like the dynamic palingenesis of a treble signifier. Now, the music is full of brightness and hope and, with minor replaced by major, interval dealingss of subject construction is changed, excessively, leting key inside the chief subject construction to be developed from the ‘p to ff ‘ statement made at the beginning. After that, the subject is played con forza with both custodies octaves to make the flood tide of chief portion. After the subject is stated in G minor and E-flat major, it turns to a back-to-back passage phrase via sequence. Here, without a definite meter, the subject straight enters into passage.
( 3 ) Passage, saloon 81-104
The beginning of passage is besides the terminal of chief portion. The texture of chief portion extends until passage portion. The minute the passage starts, it instantly enters into a harmonic background chiefly composed of dominant pedals in A. As a consequence, the passage between chief and secondary parts is realized with the debut subject. Here, the debut subject is given a rhythmic extension ( saloon 81-86, saloon 87-92 ) . After that, the subject is compressed into 2 bars ( bar 93-94 ) and transforms from a single-channel texture to tri-phonic texture by superposing sequence. In saloon 101, the key is altered to fix dominant chords for officially come ining in D major, which, once more, is realized by taking the debut subject into the secondary portion. Bar 101-104 are dominant 7th chords in D major, with two bars in the in-between service as go throughing lessened 7th chords.
i??4i?‰Secondary Theme, saloon 105-178
Secondary subjects are stated in D major in 3/2 round and at grandioso pacing. There are two subjects in the secondary portion presented in three phases: phase I ( bar 105-119 ) , phase II ( bar 120-152 ) and phase III ( bar 153-178 ) . The construction of phase I is irregular unfastened transition ( 4+6+ expanded to +2+4 ) . With deep and resonating chords in its background, the first subject is as magnificent and splendid as an heroic poem. This amazing tune, nevertheless, does non last long. Soon, intuition and contradiction dominate the music and the meandering tune is replaced by question-and-answer phrases. At the same clip, there comes contrast in compass, kineticss, and harmonic colourss. After a series of question-like motor sequence, the subject falls on lessened 7th chord. Phase II ( bar 120-152 ) is a passage bridging the 2nd secondary subject. In this transition, the music sounds like a adult male ‘s internal soliloquy. It is interesting that the passage between the first and 2nd secondary subjects is completed with the same musical stuff as that of chief subject. But its beat and texture are changed to convey out a different personality. Tune here is evidently seeking to avoid ‘tonality centre ‘ , which is the cardinal to alter the character of a subject. In add-on, wide beat pattern brings peace and lyric component into the subject.
The music continues widening in the way of soft emotion. The harmoniousnesss are thin, the texture is intermittent and the dynamic maintains at ‘p ‘ . The opposite factors in the chief subject reappear in saloon 141, but the dynamic is weak ( P ) . Here, the music wholly turns lyric and so bit by bit fades or vanishes into air. From saloon 149 to 152, alt ascends half-tone in conjunct gesture and bass descends half-tone in conjunct gesture until the music enters into saloon 152, with dominants in D major takes up the last metre of saloon 152. In phase III ( bar 153-178 ) , arising from the chief subject, the 2nd secondary subject, is the most lyric subject of the full sonata.
This is a great illustration of Liszt ‘s first-class thematic development technique: thematic transmutation, i.e. one subject is developed from another subject but shows a musical image that is wholly different from that of the original subject or distinctively in contrast to that of the original subject. This subject that consists of lyric and romantic subject and dream-like piano texture unique to Liszt is in D major. In saloon 153-156, the love subject is presented. Bar 157-160 realizes thematic sequence. In saloon 161-164, there are transitional phrases where different thematic stuffs appear. In saloon 165-170, the love subject is farther developed. Bar 171-178 reprises the subject in fluctuation where tune is hidden inside the texture. Here, the secondary subject shows no definite meter. It seems that the meter falls on the dominants in parallel minor and the music progresses to coda via half-tone patterned advance. In general, the principal and secondary subjects contrast with each other in footings of musical images and characters. But, to some extent, there is besides contrast inside the secondary subject itself. All subjects are developed in a really clear bed construction.
i??5i?‰Coda, saloon 179-204
Coda is an extension of musical temper of the secondary portion. With the texture and key of the secondary portion in the background, it besides gives a brief citation of the chief subject to do its personality closer to that of the secondary subject. Bar 179-180 nowadayss the thematic stuffs of the chief subject. Bar 181-182 is used for fluctuation and repeat. Bar 183-186 is an go uping major 2nd sequence of old four bars. After that, saloon 187 states the thematic stuffs in a back-to-back descending 4th sequence in an order of ‘B, G-flat, D-flat, A-flat ‘ . In saloon 191, the beat notably speeds up and the texture is made denser, excessively. In add-on, the music progresses with the secondary subject sequence until it enters into cosmetic transitions. Bar 197-204 is written in an improvisational texture which absolutely integrates the familial subject into the temper of the secondary portion through clever rhythmic fluctuations on the familial subject. In such over-exaggeration of romantic temper, nevertheless, brews the coming of severer struggles, the Development.
2i?? Development, saloon 205-530
The development portion is composed of three parts: portion I ( bar 105-330 ) , portion II ( episode, saloon 331-459 ) and portion III ( fugue, saloon 460-530 ) .
( 1 ) Part I, saloon 205-330
From the position of thematic stuff, Part I can be divided into three phases, phase I ( bar 205-238 ) , phase II ( bar 239-254 ) and phase III ( bar 255-330 ) . Phase I ( bar 205-238 ) is the development of nucleus thematic stuffs from the chief subject. From the minute it begins, there stands a crisp contrast in musical temper between the development and the expounding. From here, the tune begins with tempo strong suit and advancements by harmonic octave, demoing a strong and forceful image. When it comes to exclude 209, the left manus and right manus cross over and travel towards opposite waies, which evidently gives a strong push to the development of music. From saloon 205 to 212, the subject is developed in C major, with the first two bars used for saying the subject, the following two bars for reprizing the subject one octave lower, and the remainder four bars for passage ( 2+2+4 ) . In saloon 213-220, the subject is developed through sequence in B major, which is besides the heterotaxy of old eight bars. In saloon 221, the texture starts changing, with tune moves to left manus portion and the subject takes up rhythmic fluctuation. At the same clip, the tenseness in the ambiance is intensified, with chords come oning about diminished 7th chord in the order of ‘A, C, E-flat, G-flat ‘ . In saloon 223-224, the subject is half tone higher. While in saloon 225-226, the subject ascends another half tone and its rhythmic speech patterns proceed from double metre to simple metre and so to bass line. Bar 233-238 takes up a wave-like flowing texture that lead the music into phase II. Stage II ( bar 239-254 ) is centered on the personality development of the chief subject. Here, the lyric texture of the secondary subject is cited as a background and the tune is woven into a streamlined texture to make a sense of soft speaking, a portraiture wholly different from that in the chief subject.
Bar 239-246 ( 2+2+4 ) once more adopts conjunct gesture for development, with the first two bars saying the subject, the following two bars reiterating the subject, and the remainder four bars for passage. Bar 247-254 repetitions old eight bars one octave lower. Then, the music moves to present III. Phase III ( bar 255-330 ) is the development of the 2nd secondary subject. This subject undergoes drastic fluctuation twice, from the sneering tone of the chief subject in expounding to the utmost lyric portraiture of the secondary subject to the house and strong statement in the development. Such dramatic alteration displays a personality different from that in the expounding. Indeed, merely such evolvement can break run into the demands on such dramatic development. Now, the subject is heavy, forceful and overpowering.
In saloon 255-256, the subject begins with moral force of ‘p ‘ . Accompanied with left manus sixteenth note flowing texture, the music conveys a sense of uninterrupted motion. Bar 257-258 is the go uping 2nd sequence of the subject. Bar 259 and 260 is severally the motor sequence of the subject. The following two bars are for passage. Bar 263 Begins further developing the subject, with the voice thickened, the dynamic moved from ‘p ‘ to ‘ff ‘ , and the left manus texture progressing in octave circles. As a consequence, the music sounds highly powerful and forceful. In saloon 270, music texture is changed once more. Bar 270-276 returns octave harmonic patterned advance around ‘A, B, C-sharp, C, E ‘ . The left manus back-to-back remote springs and right manus cross-register spring here do this piano texture one of the favourite pieces that piano players would wish to play to demo their virtuosic accomplishments. Such virtuosic piece is a alone feature of Liszt ‘s piano works. As the music continues developing from one degree to following degree, a temper full of tenseness, instability and anxiousness is besides intensified to a higher and higher degree. Finally, together with ever-increasing instability and moral force of chords, the music bursts into a flood tide. It seems the flood tide does n’t province the subject it ‘s supposed to province but replace it with the debut subject. Consequently, the debut subject is reborn here, full of brightness and hope.
Bar 301 cites the chief subject as the reply to recitative. It is besides a deepened, more complicated transmutation of chief subject stuffs. Following to it, the secondary subject starts inquiring inquiries in F child and is answered. Then, a twine of question-like lessened 7th chords ascends, uncovering a melancholy and incapacitated temper. In saloon 311, there come the two conflicting subjects in the chief subject in sequence, which is once more accompanied with a tone of oppugning, doing the music even more instable. Bar 319 is used for altering key, i.e. turning it to E child, and superposing the conflicting subjects to blend them together. Bar 319-330 is an emotional passage in which the subject is developed in a deconstructive manner as a readying for the following portion. During the patterned advance, the dynamic moves from ‘f ‘ to ‘PPP ‘ and the music vanishes on a dominant 9th chord.
Development: Episode, saloon 311-459
Adding episodes in development portion is really one of structural techniques of cyclic signifier. In the cyclic signifier, an episode plays the function of a lento motion. On the other manus, episodes can escalate the contrasting tempers in the development portion. More specifically talking, it is used for making musical images in contrast with that of old parts within the same development portion and, at the same clip, doing it possible for the secondary subject of the expounding to farther develop itself. Episodes, nevertheless, are non a absolutely independent construction but an extension of the development portion. Episode construction is by and large equal to a treble signifier added with a palingenesis. But it does hold some particular features. In the first portion of the episode, there are two subjects in compound transition. The first subject is a new subject in F major, in 3/4 metre, presented in an irregular construction, like reverberations in a vale coming from afar. It is highly lyric and full of dream-like imaginativeness. Get downing with an ongoing andante, the first subject ends in dominant chords. The 2nd subject originates from the secondary subject. Its key is moved to A major which is tantamount to the old F major that has already moved it dominant chords down to VI degree. As a consequence, there occurs a crisp contrast in harmonic colourss. Trills, decorations and a figure of interludes in irregular rhythmic form offer a freer development of an already really lyric subject. In saloon 362, the 2nd subject is stated in an unfastened construction and ends in dominant 7th chord. Although these two subjects and their keies are different from each other, they do portion the same lyric nature. The in-between portion that states contrasting subjects is the development of secondary subjects. Here, the key moves to F-sharp major, in 3/4 metre. But the music is still full of passion and progressing at a faster and faster beat. The thematic construction is composed of two phrases. Bar 363-371 is in a construction of 4+5. Bar 372-375 is the transition of the 2nd subject, modulating F-sharp-g from major to minor and continuing thematic development. In saloon 385, there appears a ferocious confrontation between the chief subject ( in E child ) and secondary subject ( in E-flat major ) . Consequently, they show crisp contrast in key, manner, registry, and melodious way ( the principal subject ascends while the secondary subject descends ) . As the dynamic grows stronger and stronger, the turbulency in the music is intensified and the music is straight pushed to its flood tide to finish a dynamic palingenesis of the subject. From the ‘ppp ‘ of its first statement to the ‘fff ‘ of its palingenesis, the subject ascends over two octaves. Here, the tune is peculiarly bright and lyric, as if it has overcome the down and glooming temper and regained its freedom and pleasance. In saloon 415, there come the transitional phrases. Here, when reprising, the 2nd subject shows the same key as that of the first subject and evolves to the finale of the episode. In saloon 433-440, after two bars saying the subject, there come three back-to-back sequences. Bar 445 is an single saloon to province the subject, in which the subject first moves between upper voice and lower voice and finally descends as if it has no other pick. At the same clip, its dynamic gets weaker and weaker and tune interruptions into pieces. Then, when the music is about to stop in F-sharp, the F-sharp, nevertheless, Usshers in the debut subject which serves non merely as the extra meter of the old episode, but besides as the debut of following transition. If the development of the first portion of development is based on the quinine water of chief subject, so, the episode is the development and extension of the secondary subject.
i??3i?‰Part III: Fugue, saloon 460-530
When the episode is over, the composing is transformed from homophonic music to polyphonic music, i.e. fugue. From the position of structural map, a fugue is equal to the 3rd motion in a cyclic work, i.e. scherzo. But as a constituent of development, it initiates new development phases.
The debut subject stated in the finale of the episode still keeps the original key relationship with the subject of the fugue. The key of original debut and the subject is ‘g-b ‘ . But the key here is ‘f-sharp-b-flat ‘ , half tone lower than the original key. Therefore, the fugue subject appears like the beginning of the palingenesis. Since the subject is in B-flat child, we can see it as the readying of palingenesis, i.e. a false palingenesis.
Bar 460-466 provinces the fugue ‘s subject and maps as the codetta of other three bars. Blending two facing factors in itself, the subject has great potency for look and distinguishable personality. Bar 470 is a thematic expounding in dominant key. In saloon 480, the subject is exposited in upper voice and the texture is transformed from a single-channel texture to a tri-phonic texture by agencies of superposing. When exposited in the quinine water, dominant key and the tonic severally, following another big interlude, the subject is complemented in E-flat child. In 506-508, alterations are brought in the music. The polyphonic texture is transformed to strong chord patterned advance and the opposite subjects are developed at the same clip, taking to an go uping major 2nd motor sequence. In saloon 509, the music is further developed, i.e. a thematic contemplation appears in the in-between voice and the right manus attach toing texture originates from the subject. In saloon 513, the thematic contemplation is exposited in octaves at upper fifth, giving rise to the robust and full tone colour that reveals the composer ‘s aspiration for his ideal. Bar 519 is a transitional phrase. In saloon 523, the chief subject radiances twice but does n’t last long. It shortly becomes an ongoing phrase where diminished 7th chord in B child is constructed with sixteenth note speech patterns. Therefore, the music has completed harmonic readying for palingenesis.
3aˆ?Recapitulation, Bar 531-672
( 1 ) Principal subject, saloon 531-555
In fugue transition, the chief subject is to the full developed by agencies of polyphonic technique. In add-on, the fugue structurally maps as an debut of palingenesis. As a consequence, the phase I and III in the original subject are omitted in the existent thematic palingenesis in B child. Since saloon 531, after two bars ‘ of readying, the palingenesis straight begins with the cardinal portion of the subject with dynamic somewhat increased and the remainder remain the same. In saloon 554, the tune ascends in 2nd conjunct gesture and so suddenly ends in E-flat major. Subsequently, the music enters into transitional portion.
( 2 ) Passage, saloon 555-599
Since the secondary subject must return to the quinine water and comply with the overall key layout, the passage has to undergo some proficient alterations. Bar 555-560 is the passage in E-flat major based on the thematic stuffs of the debut. In saloon 561, the music is modulated to E minor and the debut subject measure up by a half tone. In saloon 569, the chief subject and debut subject are exposited in bend and their keies are besides partially developed. There is an obvious ‘P-f ‘ dynamic contrast between the two subjects. In saloon 582, the music all of a sudden alterations from long horizontal melodious patterned advance to perpendicular motor sequence focus oning on chords. The music is harmonically developed through the patterned advance of motivation. But no affair how the chords may alter, the uninterrupted bass in F-sharp remains. This is the harmonic intimation of the secondary subject, bespeaking that it is the dominant in B major. Both custodies octaves conveying about a powerful flowing texture which straight leads in saloon 595. Mocking subject is presented forcefully in the bass. In the transitional portion, the secondary subject is led in through a new manner of statement.
( 3 ) Secondary Theme, saloon 600-642
The palingenesis of the secondary subject is structurally indistinguishable with traditional sonata signifier in following facets. The key moves closer to that of the chief subject. The secondary subject reprises in B major, the same key used for reprizing the chief subject. The 2nd secondary subject besides complies with the same key. In the first secondary subject transition, saloon 600-615, in add-on to the return of key, the rhythmic denseness of the texture is somewhat changed and the moral force is weakened a spot. As a consequence, everything is tending to relaxation and peace. The first secondary subject ends in a drawn-out altered chord. As the first and 2nd secondary subjects portion the same key, the transitional portion of the secondary subject in the original expounding is abridged and the music straight enters into the 2nd secondary subject reprizing portion, i.e. saloon 616-649. Here, three texture is used for make fulling the spreads between beat. Thankss to exclude 628, where octaves are used for emphasizing the tune, and saloon 630, where a free and improvisational texture is adopted, the music becomes more graceful and elegant. In saloon 634, with tune come oning in the interior voice and the texture demoing more dynamic, the lyric nature of the secondary subject is presented to the greatest extent.
i??4i?‰Codetta, saloon 642-649
Structurally talking, the codetta is simply a complement of the secondary subject. Both its texture and key are nil but the extension of the secondary subject. The passage from palingenesis to sonata finale is realized through the sequence based on chief thematic stuffs.
4i?? Coda, saloon 650-760
From the position of structural map, the finale is a summarisation or decision of the full sonata. Particularly for big composings, a finale is perfectly necessary for accomplishing a musical balance between the predating thematic confrontation and the undermentioned dramatic and complicated development, every bit good as by and large mentioning or developing all old subjects. Meanwhile, the finale is where all floating factors in the development return. A finale contains three phases.
Phase I ( bar 650-672 ) is an debut phase. Equally shortly as it begins, contrast instantly emerges in the music. In add-on, pacing is changed and thematic stuffs are replaced, excessively. Specifically talking, it begins in B major at Stretta quasi presto pacing, remembering pieces from the development. It is just to state that phase I is the palingenesis of saloon 255-276 in B major. Here, it seems that the subject is reaffirmed in the quinine water.
Bar 673-728 is the nucleus of the finale, severally remembering every subject that appeared antecedently. Bar 673-681 recalls the debut subject. Here, tempo is quickened once more. In the quinine water, dynamic fluctuation further develops the personality of the debut subject. As a consequence, the music starts radiating enthusiasm and intense emotions. In saloon 682-699, there come back-to-back phrases in falling 2nd. They are the development of the thematic stuffs of passage portion in the palingenesis. This is non merely a motor patterned advance derived from the chief subject, but besides a variant development of the subject. The tune steps up to a higher registry with its pacing varied and dynamic intensified. Together, they creates an up-and-down peal motion, go forthing an feeling that the music is about to do the concluding pick between the affirmatory and the negative. In saloon 682-689, right manus takes over the tune. Bar 682-683 provinces the subject. Bar 684-685 reprises the subject. In saloon 686, the music goes through a procedure of sequence, development and passage. In saloon 690-695, left manus takes over the tune but the power remains the same. In saloon 696-699, the music stairss by half-tone to the following transition. Bar 700-710 recalls the secondary subject. In the first a few bars, the music actively and strict moves frontward until it reaches the flood tide, playing a function in roll uping power and preparing for the undermentioned transition. When the secondary subject appears, the finale reaches to its flood tide. Glowing and glorious musical look, orchestral harmoniousnesss and steadily lifting tune make the secondary subject even more glorious and eye-popping, as if the composer saw the visible radiation at the terminal of the tunnel. Bar 710 terminals in dominant chords. After a short remainder, in saloon 711, the pacing, metre and moral force are changed and the music starts remembering the episode subject. Here, except for the alteration of quinine water, the remainder is by and large the same as that of the episode. Merely saloon 728 falls on dominant 7th chord. In this transition, the tempers of the flood tide are pacified and the music steps into the concluding portion of the finale.
Bar 729-760 is the reasoning portion of the finale. It adopts a typical narrative technique for the coda. In footings of harmoniousness, accent is placed on the sense of stableness of the meter. In bass, the mocking subject of the chief subject is presented in land bass, ‘p ‘ dynamic, and 4/4 metre. The beat is evidently decelerating down. Although each saloon undergoes harmonic fluctuation, the ongoing bass remains the same. In saloon 737, the dynamic gets weaker to ‘pp ‘ , and the chief subject is presented intermittently. Now, the crisp personality has gone. In this finale, the opposite factors in the subject maintain moving towards each other. Bar 744 nowadayss a complement plagal meter. Here, the music is fundamentally over. Bar 750 once more states the debut at the pacing of lento assai to accomplish a thematic reverberation between the debut and the finale. The manner is still instable when this composing in B minor terminals in B major. The chord that ends the whole sonata is the primary sixth-four chord in B major. Possibly, this is because sixth-four chord is more inclusive than the original chord. Now, everything is empyreal, holly and clean. At last, the sonata stops with a B note.
The society when Liszt wrote his Piano Sonata in B Minor had great influence on the creative activity of this work. From the position of artistic signifier, Liszt learnt composing techniques from German and Austria composers, which is one of the most of import grounds why this sonata was written. From the position of musical content, German literature chef-d’oeuvre, Goethe ‘s Faust, had great influence on Liszt. He borrowed three major characters from the Faust to reflect the universe in his bosom. From the position of musical signifier, the sonata was composed in individual motion sonata signifier. At the same clip, it besides possesses some features of multi-movement cyclic sonata signifier or ‘Double-function signifier ‘ . Although there is a batch of argument over how to construe the sonata, my apprehension is that the composer tried to show a complete and profound contemplation on life via a few characters borrowed from literature, based on his womb-to-tomb hunt for his ideal and the journey of his bosom, and, finally, placed the hope for life on spiritual redemption. Such spiritual pick is a drastic exposure of the failing of human nature and dictates the tragedy keynote of the work.
Although the Piano Sonata in B Minor has a big and complicated construction, Liszt paid great attending to the rule of ‘coherent thematic development ‘ . To Liszt, ‘thematic transmutation ‘ was a good technique to keep the coherency of the full music. Thematic transmutation is a technique of where a subject is developed by altering the manner, key, beat, metre, pacing, dynamic, registry and texture, to show and set up musical images and convey human feelings, and a technique can be used for set uping the implicit in construction to unite a musical signifier. It ‘s like a nexus linking different parts in contrast with each other. When finding the construction layout of the work, Liszt boldly wove the constructions of cyclic signifier into a single-movement sonata to better a sonata ‘s capacity of musical look. In add-on, such structural invention efficaciously embodies the structural rule of ‘start from a general and overarching construct and so consistently uncover the content of a subject in a measure by measure manner ‘ . It is more than an original construction invention. More significantly, it is a concrete contemplation of Liszt ‘s strong disposition to ‘discard the stale and take in the fresh ‘ .
As for how to play Liszt ‘s Piano Sonata in B Minor, although due to the influence of different piano playing schools and different piano players ‘ personal involvements, the consequence of different reading versions of the sonata varies widely. It is still possible to sum up or set up a general reading guideline acceptable to all, based on thorough survey over the sonata ‘s mark. Such by and large acceptable logic or regulation is really a manner through which a work is performed. The key to see if a personal playing manner is consistent with the manner of the sonata lies in one thing: whether the piano player slopes to bring out the original expression of the sonata or indue it with a wholly new significance.
With his extraordinary imaginativeness and great creativeness, Liszt left behind himself a great musical hoarded wealth to all human existences, with his Piano Sonata in B Minor as one of the brightest pearls in this hoarded wealth.