Fixed Budgeting And United Consultancy Accounting Essay

United Consultancy is a service based company that provides consultancy to the F & A ; B industry. The overall public presentation from the twelvemonth ‘s budget stoping 31st August 2012 has made a great impact towards the managers and has seen how large a border the discrepancy has been compared to the budgeted amount. The excess of the net income garnered has simplified the overall budgeting procedure while restricting the concentrating on how best the company can reinvent its fiscal operations to properly reflect the alterations and how it can further heighten itself to be a competitory market participant.

With concerns from the advisers to farther reference the issue on the simpleness of the budget used in the company, we are herewith traveling to take a expression at the pattern of United Consultancy and if there is a possible solution to farther better on the manner the board of managers get the budget and decently realine the companies ends and waies to maintain it at an border.

Fixed Budgeting and United Consultancy

Current attack adopted by United Consultancy is fixed budget. A fixed budget is a budget that is prepared on the footing of specified standards that does non let for any alterations or fluctuations in the activity that might happen at any clip within the period covered by the budget.

For United Consultancy, this means that the fixed budget is drafted from a calendar or operational year/months, and is non changed at any clip within the twelvemonth, even when there are alterations in the degrees of concern activities that takes topographic point. There will be no alterations even when the company takes a sudden addition in net incomes or honkytonk in its gross revenues figures.

The fixed budget used is a different budgeting attack compared to a variable or flexible budget, with a flexible budget there are allotments for seting specified line of points based on the degrees of gross generated over the continuance of the twelvemonth.

In contrast a fixed budget is laid out carefully to be fixed for the full period. This attack ensures that each section within the company is able to place how much they have to pass at the start of a period and how much allowances remains after any given point during the budgeting period.

The fixed budget is a fiscal program that do non let the alteration irrespective of the alteration from the program in existent degrees of activity that occurs, since United Consultancy experiences does see a certain fluctuations from their expected activity degrees over the period encompassed by the budget, the sum of the budget is really surely different from the existent consequences. Points to see is the state of affairss in which a fixed budget can be probably to track closely to the existent consequences are when:

Costss are mostly fixed, so that disbursals do non alter as grosss fluctuate

The industry is non capable to much alteration, so that grosss are moderately predictable

The company is in a monopoly state of affairs, where clients must accept its pricing

In comparing most companies that uses fixed budgets, which indicates that the routinely trade with big discrepancies between existent and budget consequences. A possible manner for United Consultancy to extenuate the disadvantages of a fixed budget is to unite it with a uninterrupted budget whereby you add a new budget period into the terminal of the budget every bit shortly as the recent budget period has concluded, by this pattern, United Consultancy could bit by bit integrate the most existent consequences of the period into the budget.

Another manner to extenuate the consequence of a fixed budget is to shorten the clip frame it covers. For illustration, United Consultancy may budget can be made to merely embrace a 3 month period, after which direction formulates another budget that goes on for the 3 months after that.

Advisers pros & amp ; cons in United Consultancy

At United Consultancy services employs advisers to supply services to its clients. A adviser can be an experient person that has been trained to analyse and advice a client in order to help the client in doing the best possible picks. Strategic advisers may even assist the clients to measure and develop a concern program to run into the company ‘s strategic ends.

Peter Block ( ) , Defines a adviser as person who has influence over an single, group or an organisation, but who has no direct authorization to implement alterations. He farther defines that to contrast a adviser with a alternate director or a individual who ‘acts on behalf of, or in topographic point of a director ‘ . The major difference that should be identified is that a adviser ne’er makes the determination for the person or group but a foster director does do these determinations.

A adviser is normally an expert or a professional the specified field and has a broad cognition on the capable affair. The function of advisers outside the medical field ( where the term is most normally used ) can be classified under two general classs:

Internal Consultant – person who operates within an organisation but is available to be consulted on countries of specialism by other sections or persons ( moving as clients ) ; or

External Consultant – person who is employed externally ( either by a house or some other bureau ) whose expertness is provided on a impermanent footing, normally for a fee. As such this type of adviser by and large engages with multiple and altering clients.

In the instance of United Consulting we have our advisers as portion of the external advisers that targets the clients to supply their country of expertness that in return generate income for the company. The advisers besides serve as a double intent whereby they are able to give internal advice to United Consultancy to turn to certain issues if they arise.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Advisers

To understand farther the impact of advisers in Untied Consultancy, we would necessitate to farther understand the pros and cons of holding such persons:

Advantages to see:

Additional accomplishments.

Access to a alone accomplishment set that is nonexistent in the company. Provides a different point of position towards a certain set of aims and can supply priceless feedback and suggestions for procedure betterments.

Advantage: Intelligent advice.

The advisers provide “ Expert ” advice and can supply “ miracle ” solutions towards a job. Clients prosecute our services to acquire different facets of authorising their concern.

Advantage: Outsider position.

Ellen J Langer suggest that the use of advisers as an foreigner to conceive of a different point of position towards a solution as the current employees of the company may already be adapted to the behaviour therefore a alteration of position or “ believe outside the box ” position can scuffle alterations in the company.

Cost turning away

Prosecuting advisers at the start of the undertaking can usually salvage the organisation tonss of money down the route, proper procedures and design as advice by the advisers can guarantee companies do non follow bad patterns and avoid failures.

Disadvantage to see:


The cost to engage a adviser can be expensive, but without a counsultant, certain procedures can be simplified and empowered to the employee to execute them at a better gait therefore redemptive clip and salvaging valuable resources in the long tally.

Quality control.

The ‘enigma ‘ factor whereby the advice given by the adviser might non be as valuable due to the advisers non cognizing the whole scenario or way of the organisation therefore unable to give proactive advice to the clients.

No cognition of in-house processs:

Advisers do n’t cognize your concern or your organisation and processs every bit good as you do. They have to travel through a learning period the first clip you engage them.

Costss considerations

What ‘s behind the charges?

Advisers cost more than in house employees because they ca n’t work on a full clip agenda, they are seek out as they provide their services and can be engaged to execute responsibilities of employees while supplying their expertness on how to foster better the company ‘s public presentation.

Ratess differ by length of battle

Short-run battles will normally command a higher hourly rate than long-run work. Long-run work represents less “ bench clip ” and therefore lowers the contractor ‘s disbursals.

Restrictions of current budget spreadsheet:





Chargeable consultancy hours








Administration staff wages




Advisers ‘ wages




Casual rewards




Motor and travel costs











Printing, postage & A ; letter paper




Premisess and equipment costs




Entire costs




Fees charged




Net income




Based on the given budget data the as above, there is a few restrictions stated as below:

Should group together fixed and variable cost so that can see clearly

Presently all the fixed and variable cost is merged all together and is hard for person to decently distinguish the difference for each person costing

Discrepancies should unwrap + or ( – )

From the sample, we can see that the current discrepancy is determined by the value of the figure but non demoing out if it ‘s a positive or negative figure.

Why Fixed Budgets Work

One of the best grounds for a company to prosecute a fixed budget is the discrepancy analysis. The discrepancy analysis will inform the several persons on how much the company is over or under its original planned budget ; via per centum or dollars. Even for new concern, it is easier to be after for old ages in front when there is a comparing between what was expected and what really happened. In the coming old ages, there can be accommodations in the budget either up or down depending on the discrepancy per centums. Fixed budgets work best when the concern proprietor has a sensible sum of certainty what net incomes and outgos will be like excluding extraordinary fortunes.

Why Flexible Budgets Work

Flexible budgets are alterations based upon volume ; it provides a greater degree of control. New apparatuss need to maintain a tight monitoring of cost, restricting certain flexible disbursals to a per centum of volume to assist carry through this. A new concern can change a great trade from what was ab initio forecasted, and flexible budgets offer real-time position if a concern disbursals and grosss. The understanding concern proprietors may non hold clip to travel the problem of bring forthing a prognosis for the fixed budget. The flexible budget trumps over this by holding the prognosis in one measure.

Why flexed budget is utile

The functionality of a flexible budget is designed to alter in response to the alterations of the end product degrees or on fortunes alterations in other relevant factors. Flexible budgets can be used to congratulate the usage of a fixed budget, they have a portion to play and can be applied in more than one context. In the planning procedure, it is a important tool that can be used to bring forth a scope of estimations for different be aftering scenarios of gross revenues, cost, market monetary values and etc.

The equal appropriate usage of flexible budgeting is chiefly for the intent of control. When fixing a public presentation study it is of import to take history of the difference of some cost with variable degrees of end product. The existent degree of end product can be different from those that have been planned in a fixed budget and the cost marks use for all the variable and semi variable cost should be adjusted consequently.

Flexible budgeting takes into history how comparing the existent cost incurred for a certain end product degree with the budget developed. At a basic degree, all budget variable and semi variable cost should be adjusted consequently to take history of the existent end product degree. Fixed cost would non be expected to alter in malice of the altering end product. Flexible budget enables the alterations to be captured consequently and the discrepancy depending on the end product can be tailored consequently to reflect the exact alterations that is required at the peculiar point of clip, though there can be a point of confusion for the operations as the mark set for the twelvemonth would look to be a traveling mark.

Restrictions of Flexible Budgeting

The use of a flexible budget is an first-class manner to decide many troubles that is built-in in a fixed budget. However there are besides some Numberss of serious issues from utilizing a flexible budget, which are addressed below.


It might be difficult to explicate or administrate the flexible budget because many cost are non variables, alternatively of a fixed cost constituent that needs to be calculated and added in the budget expression. Time ingestion in doing computations for expressions and flexible budgeting tends to include merely little figure of variable cost expressions.

Shutting hold.

Time hold when required to wait for a fiscal coverage to be closed, merely so the gross and other activities can be imported over to the budget theoretical account, extraction of the informations and amalgamation of the information. Merely with that merely can the fiscal statement that contains both existent and budget can be compared.

Gross comparing.

Lack of comparing between existent gross since both Numberss might be the same. The theoretical account is design to fit existent disbursals to expected disbursals, non to compare the gross degree.


Some organisations have few variable cost for it to build a flexible budget, alternatively they have largely fixed operating expenses that does non alter to any activity. In this scenario, there use of a flexible budget is of no usage since it will non be much different from a fixed budget.

In brief is that a flexible budget requires extra clip to build, slows down the issue of fiscal statements, does non steps gross discrepancies and may non be applicable under certain type of budget theoretical accounts. These are serious issues that tend to restrict its uses.

How the spreadsheet package can be used to setup the flexed budget

A flexible budget calculates the different degrees of disbursement for variable cost, pending on the alterations of the sum of the existent net income or other activity. The use of a spreadsheet to input the existent gross or activities mensurable into the flexible budget one time an accounting period has been closed, and from there it should bring forth a budget that is specific to the inputs. From there a base comparing can be done on versus existent information for control intents.

Stairss taken to build a flexible budget are:

Classify all fixed disbursals and divide out them in the budget theoretical account.

Establish the grade to which all variable costs change as activity steps change.

Generate the budget theoretical account, where fixed costs are “ difficult coded ” into the theoretical account, and variable costs are acknowledged as a per centum of the relevant activity steps or as a cost per unit of activity step.

Enter existent activity measures into the theoretical account after an accounting period has been completed. This updates the variable costs in the flexible budget.

Enter the ensuing flexible budget for the accomplished period into the accounting system for comparing to existent disbursals.

To make a flexible budget that ranges in degree of edification. Here are several fluctuations on the construct:

Basic flexible budget.

Easiest signifier where the budget alterations those disbursals straight with gross. There is a typical percentile built into the theoretical account that is multiplied by the existent gross to get at what disbursals should be recorded as declared gross degree. In the instance of United Consultancy, the cost for hours can be used instead than the per centum of entire consultancy aggregation.

Intermediate flexible budget.

Expenses vary depending on the activity measured than gross. The telephone disbursals may change with the alterations in the head count. If so, the integrating other such activities can be considered into the flexible budget theoretical account.

Advanced flexible budget.

Expenses can merely change from the certain scopes of gross or activities ; those outside the scope, a different proportion of outgo may be applied. An progress flexible budget will alter the proportions of the disbursals if the measuring are based on exceed their mark ranges.

In short, a flexible budget gives a company a tool for comparing existent to budgeted public presentation at many degrees of activity.

Based on the given budget, a easier to grok budget is as above whereby it identifies the fixed and variable cost consequently.

* Insert amounts merely in xanthous highlighted cells

** A positive discrepancy is favourable to the company ; it means the existent cost is lesser than expected. Likewise for negative discrepancy

Changes done for comparing to initial spreadsheet.

Segregate both Fixed and Variable Costss.

Assumed that fixed cost for the following period is the same as existent fixed cost

User to input informations in xanthous highlighted cells

Variable cost is computed by expressions based on per centum of gross.

Percentage is based on existent per centum for last period.

Part C

– You need to explicate clearly whether the nothing based budgeting is suited for United Consultancy ( for each justification, the illustration should be provided )

Zero Based Budgeting and United Consulting

Developed in the early 1960 ‘s by Peter Pyrrh, Zero based budgeting is an effort to repair the set bounds of incremental techniques. It presumes that the budget could be recompiled from the first start ; from a zero base and focuses on the activities and plans instead than the units or sections.

Zero based budgeting was further defined by Jones and Pendlebury saying that ‘Zero based budgeting in its purest signifier is exactly what its name implies ; the readying of runing budgets from a zero base even though the organisation might be runing more or less as in old old ages the budgetary procedure assumes that it is get downing afresh ‘ .

The construct is applied to new services that truly are built from a zero base. In add-on nothing based budgets can be used to subjective countries such as fixs, care, hardware where service precedences are set corporately without utilizing mention from the last twelvemonth ‘s budget. The budget should bespeak their demands for resources such as a fund that can be allocated based on the cost benefits or similar appraising analyses. The const benefit attack is an effort to guarantee value for money, it inquiries long standing premises and waiters as a tool for consistently look intoing and abandoning any unproductive undertakings.

The features of ZBB are:

Involves all directors in the budget procedure

Justifies the resource for current and proposed activities

Determines Objectivities

Appraisal of alternate methods to accomplish aims

Activities or cost should non be vectored into the program even though they are featured in current or old 1s.

ZBB is best used to discretional and support services whereby it has great possible application towards the populace sector. With discretional cost such as advertisement or traning ; direction can hold some options to the value the demand to budget for the activity. There are no optimal relationship between input ( cost ) and end product ( gross ) . They are non determined by old committednesss. In consequence direction is free to put the measure of service they will be willing to supply and there are no set methods to find the right sum to be spent in peculiar methods.

Cardinal phases are to find execution of Zero Based Budgeting

specify the range of execution ;

place determination units ;

prepare determination bundles ( an analysis of a distinct country of activity ) ;

rank bundles ;

prepare budget ;

Implement budget.

In the instance of United Consultancy stand point, the use of ZBB would be favourable as the focal point on the budget will represent more towards the rating of services rendered from the entire result of the budget. It would be a good manner for direction to measure the value of service offered and how much is required to either sustain or be required to better upon through alterations or preparation.

Advantages of Zero-Base Budgeting

Points to see when measuring Zero Based Budgeting for United Consultancy:

Options analysis.

Requires direction to place alternate ways to each activity ( in-house V outsourcing ) ; every bit good as the different degrees of outgo. Therefore coercing the development of options ; the direction can see the procedure or other ways that the concern can be carried out.

Budget rising prices.

Management must fit the disbursals to activities ; it reduces the possibility of an unreal hyperbolic budget on the sections side and it is easy to trap point


Can be used as a argument platform from direction to force through corporate positions and missions every bit good as how it can be achieved

Extinguish non-key activities.

Forces reviews on direction to place what activities are critical to the organisation. By making so, direction can aim non-key operations for expiration or outsourcing

Mission focal point.

Management are forced to put focal point on the assorted clear ends of their sections that can otherwise be defined ill

Redundancy designation.

Can be used to demo if there are similar activities carried out my different sections ; taking to consolidation of the work or consideration ways for direction to re-center the work

Required reappraisal.

Regular footing reappraisals are more likely to hold the direction have a periodic reappraisal of the company

Resource allotment.

Overall corporate missions and aims can stop up with focussed marks of proper support on countries where the allotment is most needful.

In short, many of the advantages of zero-base budgeting focal point on a strong, introverted expression at the mission of a concern and precisely how the concern is apportioning its resources in order to accomplish that mission.

Disadvantages of Zero-Base Budgeting

The chief downside of zero-base budgeting is the exceptionally high degree of attempt required to look into and document section activities ; this is a hard undertaking even one time a twelvemonth, which causes some entities to merely utilize the process one time every few old ages, or when there are important alterations within the organisation. Another option is to necessitate the usage of zero-base budgeting on a rolled footing through different parts of a company over several old ages, so that direction can cover with fewer such reappraisals per twelvemonth. Other drawbacks are:


Required a big sum of analysis, meetings and coverage, all of which requires extra work force to manage the procedure.


Some sections may writhe their studies in order to guarantee their budgets will non be reduces.

Intangible justifications.

Hard to find or warrant certain expenditure countries of a concern that is unable to bring forth touchable consequences.

Managerial clip.

Management would necessitate important sum of clip to reexamine the demands of a nothing based budget


Consideration for preparation of direction to guarantee comprehension of budgeting procedure which can take clip

Update velocity.

Time and attempt it takes to make a zero based budget makes it less executable for direction to revise the budget on a changeless footing

– for each of the advantage and disadvantage, you need to supply illustration.