Examining Contingency Approach and Performance Measures Essay

A public presentation measuring is used to measure the public presentation of organisation and directors. Because of engineering betterment, the public presentation measuring systems can now embrace and back up speedier entree to, more elaborate information, on a wider scope of activities than of all time earlier. On top of informations, modern-day information systems now include huge stocks of meta-data. ( Gandy and Chapman 1997 ) ( Ahrens and Chapman 2006 ) However, a batch of organisations fail to believe through the relationship between public presentation direction system design and organisational activity.

Contingency Approach

The beginning of the eventuality attack lies in organisational theory and in the work of Burns and Stalker ( 1961 ) , Perrow ( 1970 ) , Lawrence and Lorsch ( 1961 ) and Thompson ( 1967 ) ,

( Chenhall 2003 ) ( Langfield-Smith, 2006 )

Nathan birnbaums and Stalker ( 1961 ) were the first to print findings that showed the impact of environmental uncertainness on the internal constructions of the house. Their work- The direction of Innovation- is based on a survey of UK houses. On the footing of this empirical stuff, Burns and Stalker defined two different classs of divergent systems of direction pattern: “ mechanistic system ” and “ organic system ” The mechanistic system was peculiarly appropriate for houses runing in stable conditions. This stableness made it possible to interrupt down and co-ordinate activities through centralized decision-making with a perpendicular flow of information. ( Nilsson & A ; Rapp, 2005 )

The theories of Burns and Stalker were further developed by Lawrence and Lorsch ( 1967 ) . The writers studied six organisations in the concern of developing, selling and bring forthing plastics material, two in the consumer nutrient industry and two in the container industry. The findings showed that high executing organisations adapted their integrating devices to the environment and its features. Another of import determination was that within a company different manners of organisation could be present. Still another important part to the literature handling the influence of the environment on house organisation is Organizations in Action by Thompson. Unlike the two plants antecedently mentioned, Thompson ‘s attack was chiefly deductive. Even in the debut to the book, he argues that companies are unfastened systems which are affected by uncertainness related to engineerings and environment. ( Nilsson & A ; Rapp, 2005 )

Eventuality attacks see organisations altering their public presentation steps over clip to suit their changing fortunes in an effort to keep effectual operations ( Donaldson 2001 ) . In the direction accounting research, several eventualities have been found, including: concern scheme, company construction, engineering and external environment. The undermentioned paper will explicate each of the component and exam the relationship between these eventuality factors and public presentation measuring.

Business Scheme:

Scheme is a long-run program that to carry through company ‘s ends and marks. An organisation should get down its scheme preparation with a mission statement. The mission statement should clearly province what the organisation wants to carry through and show how the company exceptionally achieves its targeted clients ‘ demands. Strategy links an organisation ‘s mission to its existent activities. It should guarantee the “ effectual and efficient resources allotments are made, an overall equitation civilization is developed and organisational way is enhanced ” ( Koch, 1994 )

Building-holding-harvesting attack was introduced by Gupta and Govindarajan. It defined that company chooses different scheme across its life rhythm – physique, hold or harvest phase. The chief intent to utilize different schemes are: to tag market portion growing or to maximise short-run net income. In the physique phase, company emphases on developing market portion although it decreases short term net income. In the crop phase, companies focus on maximising short term earning and better hard currency flow alternatively of enlarging market portion. A clasp scheme is applied to prolong market portion and besides attain sensible profitableness. ( Gupta and Govindarajan, 1985 )

In add-on, Porter ( 1985 ) named two sustainable competitory advantages: cost leaser and distinction to run into the demands of targeted clients. Firms that engage in both of the schemes but fail to utilize any of them is “ stuck in the center ” . Normally, these houses are much less profitable so rivals that possess one of the scheme. Cost leading is the most evident generic scheme. Company strive to go low-priced supplier by prosecuting economic systems of graduated table, advanced engineering, privileged entree to raw stuffs. If the company can accomplish cost leading, they are able to bear down low monetary values through cost efficiencies and do above mean profitableness. Wal-Mart does highly good at cost leading by utilizing its extended information systems to command its immense client group located around the universe.

Differentiation is a competitory scheme supplying its merchandises or services that is alone in its industry from rivals. Differentiation includes supplying higher merchandises quality, faster bringing system or utilizing different selling attack, such as altering trade name image and merchandise visual aspect. The organisations that can accomplish distinction are able to alter premium from clients and go above mean performing artist in the industry. ( Porter 1985 )

Therefore, houses that use cost leading should stress on constricted cost control or public presentation measuring. The focal point on the public presentation measuring should be how efficient the fabrication and bringing procedure is to minimise overhead costs and dealing costs.

In contrast, organisations with distinction scheme should utilize a public presentation measuring system to further creativeness and invention. Non-financial steps to measure the research and development ability, technology accomplishments, selling capablenesss and clients satisfactions are necessary.

Company Structure

Company ‘s construction is about to unite different degrees, different members of an organisation or different undertakings of the group to guarantee the objects or undertakings are took topographic point. The president could non perchance make all the company ‘s scheme and works entirely. Other people must transport a big portion of the direction burden. The manner to portion work burden is an organisational construction.

The organisational construction reflects the distribution of power and answerability. A good construction can do certain the work is efficient, persons are motivated, information flow is smooth and control system is decently.

Decentralization means the “ deputation of decision-making authorization throughout an organisation by leting directors at assorted runing degrees to do cardinal determinations associating to their country of duty ” ( Garrison, Chesley & A ; Carroll, 1993 ) In direction accounting research, construction is considered the extent to which decentalisation of authorization leads to distinguishing activities around net income centres. Centralized houses frequently have trouble diversifying operations because top direction might miss the necessary and critical industry-specific cognition. If higher-level direction insists on keeping all authorization, so the people who deal straight with the issues are non doing the determinations. On the other manus, in the decentralised houses, the authorization for determination devising is distributed to different forces. In today ‘s competitory environment, execution of a decentralised organisational construction is cost good. For decentalisation to work efficaciously, employees may be “ empowered ” by giving the authorization and duty to do their ain determinations about their work. ( Mallouk, Spraakman, Raiborn, Raiborn, Barfield and Kinney, 2007 )

Roberts ( 1990 ) reappraisal strategic accommodation in a large decentralized organisation. The high degree of decentalisation encouraged competition between net income centre directors and distanced the caput office directors from the alterations in market conditions that affected those net income centres. Accounting information was predominating power in finding directors ‘ activities and connexions and made an image of success ( Langfield-Smith, 2006 ) .

Companies ‘ construction has of import deduction for the design of public presentation step. For illustration, a house may make up one’s mind to construction into different market and parts. Then, directors may be assigned high or low decision-making liberty and there may be different grades of mutualities between those concern units. As the organisation increases in size and concern become more distant and independent, public presentation measuring needs to supply confidence to head office direction that operations are under control. The public presentation measuring besides needs to necessitate to promote directors and employees to follow the correct behaviours through proper coverage construction.

Cyert and March ( 1963 ) argued that directors are shockable, in their perceptual experiences and duties and tend non to research beyond familiar district to happen solutions to jobs. So construction and systems can restrain directors in their hunt for the best solutions.

Information Technology

In the current concern environment, the house holding the highest degree of engineering and the employees with the accomplishment to use that engineering frequently finds itself one measure in front of its rivals. Companies have entered the phase of information revolution. New information engineerings are going less and less expensive and more and more powerful. It is estimated that there is an betterment of 15 to 25 per centum in the cost-to public presentation ration yearly. ( Heterick, 1993 )

Technological inventions have dramatically advanced accounting and other information systems. Even in the smallest companies, accounting, client and provider records are computerized in Canada. Computerized record maintaining reduces the mistake rate in recorded informations and enhanced informations use for a assortment of applications. For illustration, the clip and attempt dedicated to fix fiscal statements, make fulling revenue enhancement paperss or fixing Budges is well reduced when informations are recorded electronically.

In add-on, the tendency to incorporate all concern systems, such as accounting, production, stock list, selling and merchandise design. Such systems integrating provides a more accurate and complete image of organisational operations. It besides provides the ability to obtain and retain of import market information and stay informed about client demands. Furthermore, systems integrating eliminates duplicate systems, allows directors to place and react to jobs more rapidly and facilitates more rapid determination devising. ( Garrison, Chesley & A ; Carroll, 1993 )

Over the past 20 old ages direction control systems research has recognized the importance of engineerings such as entire quality direction ( TQM ) and merely in clip ( JIT ) . The aims of JIT are to obtain stuffs merely in clip for production, to travel work in procedure from one work centre to another merely in clip to run into the demand of the following work centre, and to supply finished goods merely when the client wants them. In a JIT stock list system, a house does non purchase or do a merchandise until a client has demanded it. This system depends on accurate market informations, since a tight linkage is required between gross revenues and production volume. In add-on, high-quality production procedures are required so that defects can be avoided. JIT production promotes flexibleness in production procedures, short lead times, short production tallies, speedy apparatus and greatly decreased stock list degrees. In other words, JIM implies that all stuffs should be in active usage within the fabrication procedure in order to avoid “ unneeded ” costs. ( Raiborn, barfield and kinney, 1996 )

TQM is defined as “ a structural system for making organization-wide engagement in planning and implementing a uninterrupted betterment procedure that exceeds the outlooks of the clients or clients. ” ( Coate, 1990 ) TQM is to accomplish the end of uninterrupted betterment through client focal point, procedure betterment and entire organisational engagement. All members of a company endeavoring for entire quality direction must see the aim of uninterrupted betterment as a everyday portion of the work environment: it must go a manner of life. Improvements should be expected instead than viewed as remarkably. As marks are met, new 1s should be established. ( Raiborn, barfield and kinney, 1996 )

Technology represents eventualities for companies because it generates complex and uncertainness. These eventualities present challenges for the design of public presentation steps since extremely formalized fiscal public presentation steps could non fulfill the companies ‘ demand. Therefore, flexible and unfastened public presentation steps are required to dwell with the uninterrupted betterment and the committedness to alter.

External Environment

Environment contains uncertainness that can non be straight controlled by an organisation ‘s direction. For illustration, under the globalisation environment, companies involve a conversion in market focal point from completion among national or local providers to competition among international providers. Globalization has non merely created selling chances for goods and services, it has besides created new seller beginnings for production inputs. Therefore, a assortment of factors may act upon the company ‘s public presentation. These factors are stableness of authorities and warrants against expropriation or nationalisation ; degrees of involvement rates, rising prices, revenue enhancements and possible currency limitation and handiness of resources such as stuffs, labour and public-service corporations.

Besides, companies have to be cognizant the legal and ethical criterions differences. Laws represent codified regulations for a society and misdemeanor of Torahs may be capable to both civil and condemnable punishments. Laws are non changeless and alteration over societies. In add-on, merchandise and environmental liability are two of import legal considerations. Companies in the nutrient and health-related merchandises industries are progressively being held accountable when their merchandises adversely affect consumers. Similarly, fabrication and extraction operations are peculiarly capable of harming the environment. Two big transnational concern was bankrupted because of merchandise or environmental liability: Manville, a manufacturer of asbestos and A. H. Robbins, manufacturer of the Dalkon shield birth control device. ( Raiborn, barfield and kinney, 1996 )

Therefore, measuring the public presentations of directors and employees become really hard because their public presentation will trust on the things that they have small control. The public presentation step should be focus on whether the direction is able to plan proper contingent attacks to minimise hazards and prehend chances when environmental alterations occur.

Performance Measurement

“ A public presentation measuring system provides economic feedback to directors and operators about procedure efficiency and effectivity. ” ( Kaplan and Cooper, 1998 ) Performance measuring, control and rating systems in big and little organisations were frequently considered alongside the impact of computing machines, which were, at this clip, get downing to do inroads into commercial organisations, opening up possibilities for antecedently unimagined volumes of informations processing ( Dearden 1966 ) . Because of engineering betterment, the direction accounting and public presentation measuring systems can now embrace and back up speedier entree to, more elaborate information, on a wider scope of activities than of all time earlier. On top of informations, modern-day information systems now include huge stocks of meta-data. ( Gandy and Chapman 1997 ) ( Ahrens and Chapman 2006 ) Over the last 10 old ages, there are a batch of inventions in the public presentation measuring.

Performance measurings should be selected to be consistent with organisational ends and aims and to drive directors toward designated accomplishments. Besides, public presentation measuring systems should be used to back up direction to execute in the best attending of organisation and its fractional monetary units. Establishing a performance-reward linkage assures that directors will be rewarded in line with the quality of their organisational and subunit determinations and for their part to accomplishing the organisational mission. Because higher public presentation equates to a larger wages, the public presentation measuring system requires specified public presentation mensurating sticks and supply measuring information to the appropriate persons for rating intent. Furthermore, well-designed public presentation measuring system should supply a sound foundation for the budgeting procedure. It may foreground any activities in the budgeting procedure that provide no touchable benefits so that these activities can be reduced or eliminated and so cut down the clip needed for Budge readying. Well designed public presentation measuring systems help place the factors that cause costs and public presentation to be incurred so that more utile simulations of alternate scenarios can be made. Performance measuring system besides has coverage elements, supplying information to individuals in appraising functions. Performance studies are utile merely to the extent that the existent public presentation can be compared to a meaningful baseline of expected public presentation. ( Mallouk, Spraakman, Raiborn, Raiborn, Barfield and Kinney, 2007 )

Fiscal Performance Measurements

To measure high degree managerial public presentation, the type of duty centre must be considered. If the director is responsible for merely one pecuniary point, public presentation measurings are limited to those relevant to that individual pecuniary step. In contrast, directors of net income and investing centres are in charge of their centres ‘ grosss and net incomes. Therefore, a assortment of fiscal methods have been developed to measure public presentation.

Cash Flow

Cash Flow theory was developed by A. Rappaport in 1986. The hard currency flow statement studies and analyses minutess that have affected the hard currency history of the house during the period under reappraisal. It is of critical importance for ratings which focus straight on the hereafter hard currency flows of the concern. An extra advantage of the hard currency flow statement is that it mostly avoids the effects of discretional accounting policies ; this makes it more comparable across companies and can sometimes be more utile than the income statement. The hard currency flow statement analyses all minutess that go through the house ‘s bank history and classifies them into three classs: Operational Cash Flow, Investment Cash Flow and Financial Cash Flow. ( Bertonche and Knight, 2001 ) Inadequate hard currency flow may bespeak hapless determination doing on the portion of the entity ‘s trough.

Tax return on Investment ( ROI )

ROI is a ratio about gross produced from an organisation divided by the investing used to bring forth that gross. The ROI expression can be used to measure single investing centres, every bit good as to do intracompany, intercompany and industry comparings, if directors doing these comparings are cognizant of and let for any differences in the entities ‘ features and accounting methods. Reducing costs is normally the firs t attack directors take when confronting a worsening return on gross revenues. Reducing unneeded investing frequently involves selling or composing off fresh or unproductive assets. ROI can besides be present as net income border multiply by plus turnover. ( Palepu and Healy 2008 )

Economic Value Added ( EVA )

EVA was introduced by Stewart, G. B. in 1991 to aline the involvements of common stockholders and directors more straight. EVA is a computation of the net income generated above the cost of capital. The capital applied in EVA is about the capital invested in the organisation alternatively of plus ‘s just market value or book value. EVA = After-tax income – ( Cost of capital % X Capital invested ) . ( Stewart, 1991 )

Fiscal Performance Measurements and Contingency Approach

Wallace ( 1998 ) found that fiscal public presentation steps changed directors ‘ behaviour in using assets more intensively, decreased new investings and increased payout to stockholders through portion redemptions.

Fiscal public presentation measuring has to suit the concern scheme. Firms in the growing phase, where they are developing markets and place themselves in a comparatively complex environments, which have high grades of uncertainness. Some plus investing values are hard to mensurate or delegate to investing centres, such as research and development are non capitalized. Besides, fiscal public presentation measurings are short-run public presentation steps. For the concern in the growing phase, fiscal measurings punish directors who presently invest in assets that do non bring forth returns until future periods. Ittner and Larcker ( 1998 ) note that in the cyclical industries economic value steps may on a regular basis be negative, even when directors have taken appropriate actions.

Organizational construction besides influence the extent to which fiscal public presentation step can be used efficaciously throughout the organisation. If economic value steps are to be used at the degree of operational directors, those troughs will necessitate authorization over determinations related to the value-drivers that enhance the organisation ‘s economic value. Even if directors do hold the authorization to take determinations to better economic value, it has been claimed that employees outside corporate central offices do non understand how their actions affect economic value steps, despite extended preparation. ( Ittner and Larcker 1998 ) ( Chenhall, 2006 )

Non-Financial Performance Measures

Although fiscal steps offer indispensable deductions of public presentation, they are non able to work out assorted new concerns under the new economical environment. A company must concentrate on executing good in activities such as client service, merchandise development, fabrication, selling and bringing.

Non-financial public presentation steps include statistics for activities such as on-time bringing, fabricating rhythm clip, set-up clip, defect rate, client satisfaction and client returns. These steps have been used for many old ages by functional directors, rather frequently separate from their organisations ‘ chief public presentation measuring system. After nonfinancial steps have been chosen, directors set up acceptable public presentation degrees by supplying bases against which existent measuring informations can be compared. Nonfinancial measurings straight indicate an organisation ‘s public presentation, such as bring forthing and presenting quality goods and services to clients. Besides, as they measure productiveness activity straight, nonfinancial steps might calculate the tendency of future hard currency flows more accurately. ( Mallouk, Spraakman, Raiborn, Raiborn, Barfield and Kinney, 2007 )

Non-Financial Performance Measurements and Contingency Approach

Organization ‘s scheme, particularly the cardinal success factors that works toward scheme such as quality, client satisfaction, fabricating efficiency and effectivity, proficient excellence and foray response to market demands should be used to take the no-financial public presentation indexs. Harmonizing to the study of Ittner and Larcker ( 2003 ) about 300 executives from more than 60 fabrication and services companies, the major three grounds of uneffective non-financial public presentation steps are: steps are non linked to scheme ; links to scheme are non validated and the appropriate public presentation marks are non set.

In many instances it seems intuitively obvious that our aspiration should be maximize facets of public presentation, such as client satisfaction. Ittner and Larcker ( 2005 ) presented an analysis of the relationship between reported client satisfaction and positive and negative merchandise recommendation for a personal computing machine maker. The analysis showed that hiting a 5 ( highest ) on satisfaction had no incremental consequence over hiting a 4, but that hiting a 1 or 2 had a really strong negative consequence. ( Ahrens and Chapman, 2006 )

The external environment is besides indispensable to measure the rightness of the non-financial public presentation. Govindarajan and Gupta ( 1985 ) showed that non-financial steps provided enhanced public presentation benefits on long-run and subjective state of affairs. In the environment with high degrees of uncertainness, it is hard to put mark accurately and to mensurate managerial public presentation objectively with fiscal public presentation steps. Therefore, it is suited to utilize non-financial public presentation steps to straight mensurate the public presentation in the activities.

Integrated Performance Measure – Balanced Score Card

Financial and nonfinancial public presentation can be combined to supply an organisational and managerial public presentation. The balanced scorecard converts organisation ‘s scheme into comprehendible steps and marks. It has four positions. The standard “ Innovation and Learning ” focuses on developing competency, back uping invention and on maintaining employees motivated and committed to the work. “ Internal Business ” focal points on utilizing resources and competency in the most efficient manner through procedures and systems. “ Internal Business ” is measured on short-run footing. The “ Financial ” standard focuses on gross revenues, returns on investing, hard currency flow, part and other fiscal steps. Finally, the standard “ client ” focal points on the external client, market state of affairs, client satisfaction and client trueness. ( Kanji, 2002 )

Integrated Performance Measurements and Contingency Approach

The incorporate public presentation measuring is intended to help in strategic direction. However, harmonizing to Chenhall ( 2006 ) , balanced attack will unlikely be accomplishable in the complex engineering environment. The organisation ‘s engineering presets changing grade of complexness. Less complex engineerings have everyday procedure and well-understood undertakings, while more complex state of affairss involve undertakings that are less everyday, less good understood and perchance holding high degrees of mutualities across the value concatenation. This complexness can ensue in more complex concern patterning with a big figure of causal connexions between scheme and operations. Attempts to construct in public presentation steps to mirror these theoretical accounts can ensue in a broad diverseness of steps. It is possible that this could do information overload where efforts to pull off public presentation against the steps exceed the information processing capablenesss of directors, which at the extreme could ensue in a diminution in public presentation. With a extremely diverse set of steps, directors much make up one’s mind how they will distribute their attempts over the different countries. Ideally, a balanced set of steps will bespeak which determination countries should have precedence as the causal connexions between public presentation countries will be clear. If the engineering is complex and unsure, directors will necessitate to do judgements on this tradeoffs. ( Chenhall, 2006 )

Company construction besides influences the incorporate public presentation measuring. Ittner and Larcker ( 2005 ) reported that measuring activity in many companies was often organized as the responsibility of distinct groups, with measurings built little by little over clip. Set of step were often comprehensive, covering diverse parts of public presentation, such as fiscal public presentation, client satisfaction and employee accomplishments. However, those steps were frequently hard to incorporate in a systematic analysis due to their proficient design. For illustration, in one organisation they worked with, different steps had mismatched clip periods. One set of hebdomadal statistics was based on a hebdomad stoping on Saturday, and another stoping on Sunday. In the context of a retail concatenation, in which a important part of activity took topographic point over the weekend, this presented a important job when it came to statistically analysing the relationship between the two steps. ( Ahrens and Chapman, 2006 )


The paper exams different types of public presentation measurings, including fiscal steps, non-financial steps and incorporate public presentation steps. Using the construct of eventuality attack, the concern scheme, company construction, engineering and external environment are of import when sing the rightness of different public presentation measurings.