Customer relationship management and business intelligence Essay

CRM ( Customer Relationship Management ) and BI ( Business Intelligence ) are supportive applications to run any Telco operations. Generally these applications collaborate with each other to finish an operation. Accuracy, efficiency and flexible integrating are the cardinal characteristics for these applications to run in a extremely collaborative manner. Low cost, flexibleness, and coaction are the major demand of today ‘s Telco operations due to volatile nature of market demand.

There is a immense handiness of Business Intelligence and CRM, Systems in the market in both Open Source and Closed Source. Some prima names are as follows:

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Customer Relationship Management

Citrus DB

Sugar CRM

Compiere

Splended CRM

Concurive

Maxcare

Singl.eView

Business Intelligence

Pentaho Open BI Suite

SpagoBI

Jaspersoft Business Intelligence Suite

Italtel BI

MicroStrategy

SAP Business Objects

Prophet

Microsoft BI

IBM Cognos

Initially most of these systems were tailor made to function as little public-service corporations and evolved over the old ages and transformed into the current form after traveling through the major architectural and design alterations. These are applications that have grown harmonizing to different demands of their clients over the old ages and as extra services were introduced and for different geographically located Telco ‘s.

Largely these are centralized systems and even if they are web based, they are installed and configured harmonizing to individual operator demands and working as endeavor applications. They are resource hungry and a big pool of work force is needed to run and keep these applications.

Some of these systems are enterprise desktop applications and some are web based. In both instances these applications consume batch of web resources while accessing on the LAN or WAN. These are really high cost solutions. They incur a batch of maintainability cost and clip. Huge and high cost substructure is required to run these applications. A batch of work force is needed to run such applications.

Most of these systems are tightly integrated with their ain charge suit of solutions and are being sold along with charging systems on high extra 1 clip and repeating cost. Telecom service suppliers have no other options so purchasing such high cost, resource hungry, tightly integrated, thick client Billing, Customer attention and OSS solutions.

None of these systems are compliant to all four province of the art and demand of today ‘s Telco concern ; tools, engineerings and model i.e. Web 2.0 Framework, NGOSS Framework and Open Source engineerings.

Systems Research ‘s CRM and BI Solution will non merely be Open Source, but will besides be Web 2.0 enabled, NGOSS compliant, SaaS based, empowered by Cloud, designed harmonizing to SOA.

NGOSS starts with two missive i.e. NG intending Following Generation. It will go important for Telco ‘s to follow OSS / BSS systems with NGOSS conformity in the already ferociously competitory Telco market infinite.

It will non merely be a CRM and BI but an Incorporate Solution to a Telco ‘s Billing, Customer Care, Data Analysis, Inventory, Fraud Management and Business Intelligence demands and will besides hold the capableness to interface with HLR, IN, VMS, IVR and Prepaid Voucher Management System and General Ledger etc.

Customer Care will be a transition exercising and BI will be developed from abrasion.

Our purpose is to set on the Open Source Platform an incorporate solution for the Telco ‘s or Billing Service Companies that is cutting border i.e. Web 2.0 enabled, certified to the best of the Telco criterions i.e. NGOSS which will be about compulsory for the Telco ‘s to follow. Just like enfranchisements like ISO 9000 conformity or CMM degrees have become of import in the IT Corporate Sector. Our application will be designed harmonizing to SOA guidelines and since we will be SaaS compliant, all the faculties of our applications will be available as services. Based on our experience with cloud hosting, we planned to utilize the power of cloud to run these applications.

Our Enterprise System was born in the GSM age as we call it during our presentations. Our program is to do it NGOSS compliant and turn it into an Open Source Suite of Applications and besides do it Web 2.0 enabled and SaaS based.

This manner we will be opening up the doors for Telco ‘s and Billing service suppliers to follow this package for their charge, client attention and OSS demands.

Our literature reappraisal focal point has been around the undermentioned countries:

A. CRM, BI Applications

B. NGOSS

C. Open Source

D. Web 2.0

A: CRM, BI Applications

1. Business Intelligence

Business intelligence ( BI ) is a set of constructs to better concern determination doing [ 1 ] . BI utilizes database and application engineerings for assemblage, hive awaying and analysing informations [ 2 ] . It is an in-depth analysis carried out by fact-based support system ( e.g. DSS ) . This increases velocity at which information is available, cut down redundancy and streamline interactions [ 3 ] ; a guided action for accomplishing coveted ends [ 4 ] . Business Intelligence is all about supplying information which is right, precise, relevant and timely.

1.1. Telecom Industry:

Telecom industry has gained a batch of attending in the past few old ages. It is so because the nomadic users have grown exponentially and so are the demands of the telecom organisations.

A· Telco Business Intelligence as the term to depict a slackly organized set of applications, tools, constructs and approaches all of which are focused on the transmutation of “ natural input ” in the signifier of informations, text, artworks, multi-media or any other signifier, into useable information, that helps telecommunications executives to better understand and more expeditiously pull off their concern. [ 107 ]

A· Next-era concern intelligence is about seting actionable penetration in the custodies of the many without the cost, complication and IT constraints that have long held BI back. The thought is to back up better determination devising at all degrees of the organisation, whether in the executive suite or among gross revenues and service reps run intoing straight with clients. [ 106 ]

A· Business intelligence ( BI ) is all about presenting the right information in the right format to the right people at the right clip so they can do effectual and timely concern determinations. [ 105 ]

A· Worldwide, around about $ 3.5 trillion histories exist, and it was estimated that there are 2.3 billion cellular phone service suppliers [ 7 ] . Global phones service endorsers is estimated to duplicate by 2011 [ 7 ] .

A· Overall, the telecommunications industry is in a province of uninterrupted technological and economic flux driven by intense competition and new engineerings. [ 7 ]

A· Internet and radio, changed client ‘s usage of cellular engineering, and been able to coerce monetary values downwards [ 7 ] .

A· Government ordinances are conveying large alterations to concern schemes as they continue to germinate rapidly. [ 7 ]

A· The engineerings that current telecommunications industry supports are as follows ; Local and long term telephone services, Wireless communications, Internet, Fiber-optics, Satellites, Cable-TV-systems, Voice, Cell, WLL, VoIP, ISP, Land Line, and IPTV [ 7 ] . ISP, land line, and IPTV together are known as ternary drama.

1.2. Business Intelligence in Telecom Value Chain:

A· Deregulation and increasing competition is coercing companies to travel from traditional product-centric operations to consumer-centric operations. [ 7 ]

A· Telecommunications sellers have to analyse their clients ‘ demands and seamster all their concern procedures in the value concatenation to efficaciously run into their clients ‘ alone demands and increasing demands. [ 7 ]

A· Traditional telecommunications service suppliers need to make advanced new value-added services that are accessed online. [ 7 ]

A· To efficaciously interact with clients and design suited offerings, the seller ‘s CRM scheme has to to the full use the potency of Business Intelligence solutions. [ 7 ]

A· BI solutions that bring together informations from bing systems that deliver, path, and optimise stigmatization and direct response selling runs can assist telecommunications service suppliers cut down the hazard and increase the predictability of run executing. [ 7 ]

A· Decision-making in the telecom industry today demands high-quality intelligence. This is where concern intelligence ( BI ) solutions play their critical function. [ 101 ]

A· Business intelligence systems can significantly assist in about all facets of the value concatenation. [ 7 ]

A· Business intelligence can impact the value concatenation and supply counsel to telecom companies in countries ; Human Resource Management, Corporate Management, Finance and Asset Management, Product Development, and Customer Relationship Management. [ 7 ]

1.3. Business Intelligence Requirements in Telecom Industry:

A· Capabilities to visualise possible applications of BI to a Telecom Carrier- Churn Management, Fraud Management, Network Capacity planning, Subscriber Usage pattern Discovery and many more. [ 97 ]

A· Technical expertness to pull out information from complex informations constructions, like CDRs, Billing and Routing policies, for doing informed concern determinations. [ 97 ]

A· Clear apprehension of the operator ‘s working environment and the nature and volume of informations bing in the organisation. [ 97 ]

A· Custom Data integrating connections to entree informations from assorted informations beginnings such as Billing Systems, CRM systems [ 97 ]

A· Data repositing designs tuned for public presentation – to manage complex, resource intensive analyses. [ 97 ]

A· Addition of traceability to analytic consequences to ease Fraud Management and Regulatory conformity. [ 97 ]

A· Algorithms for Quality Control, subscriber behaviour form find and prognostic analysis [ 97 ]

A· Specialized visual image techniques for analysis of informations from varied information beginnings. [ 97 ]

A· Pre-prepared studies and splashboards to measure consequences, tendencies and forms. [ 97 ]

1.4. Business Intelligence Architectural Perspective:

A BI platform offers a incorporate architecture to back up a assortment of BI faculties, most of which were packaged and sold individually until late. The incorporate architecture provides each faculty with a common set of services-ranging from informations entree to metadata to administration-that ensures greater integrating among faculties, easier care, and faster extensibility. [ 100 ]

Some of the BI platform faculties are: [ 100 ]

A· Production Coverage

A· End User Query and Reporting

A· OLAP

A· Splashboards

A· Scorecards

A· Advanced Visualization

A· Microsoft Office Integration

A· Predictive Analytics

A· BI Search

Production Coverage

Coverage is the linguistic communication of concern. And production-or line-of-business-reporting is the most basic. All concerns need it to pass on within the organisation and beyond. That ‘s why production coverage is frequently the first concern intelligence application deployed [ 125 ] .

Production coverage package provides existent clip and historical production public presentation feedback to employees. The system collects production informations and creates describing relationships to the external informations crucial for good determination devising: Procedure Settings, Quality Info, Downtime and Maintenance activity, and more [ 126 ] .

OLAP

OLAP is an acronym for On Line Analytical Processing. OLAP performs multidimensional analysis of concern informations and provides the capableness for complex computations, tendency analysis, and sophisticateddata patterning. It is rapidly going the cardinal foundation for Intelligent Solutions includingBusiness Performance Management, Planning, Budgeting, Forecasting, Financial Reporting, Analysis, Simulation Models, Knowledge Discovery, and Data Warehouse Reporting. OLAP enables end-users to execute ad hoc analysis of informations in multipledimensions, thereby supplying the penetration and understanding they need for better determination devising.

Nowadays, many spreadsheet users have heard about OLAP engineering, but it is non clear to them what OLAP means. Unlike relational databases, OLAP tools do non hive away single dealing records in planar, row-by-column format, like a worksheet, but alternatively usemultidimensional database structures-known as Cubes in OLAP terminology-to shop arrays of amalgamate information. The information and expressions are stored in an optimizedmultidimensional database, while positions of the informations are created on demand. Analysts can take any position, or Slice, of aCube to bring forth a worksheet-like position of points of involvement.

Rather than merely working with three dimensions, companies have manydimensions to track — for illustration, a concern that distributes goods from more than a individual installation will hold at least the followingDimensions to see: Histories, Locations, Periods, Salespeople and Products. TheseDimensions comprise a base for the company ‘s planning, analysis and coverage activities. Together they represent the “ whole ” concern image, supplying the foundation for all concern planning, analysis and coverage activities [ 127 ] .

Splashboards

In information engineering, a splashboard is a user interface that, slightly resembling an car ‘s splashboard, organizes and nowadayss information in a manner that is easy to read. However, a computing machine splashboard is more likely to be synergistic than an car splashboard ( unless it is besides computer-based ) . To some extent, most graphical user interfaces ( GUIs ) resemble a splashboard. However, some merchandise developers consciously employ this metaphor ( and sometimes the term ) so that the user immediately recognizes the similarity.

Some merchandises that aim to incorporate information from multiple constituents into a incorporate show refer to themselves as splashboards. For illustration, a merchandise might obtain information from the local operating system in a computing machine, from one or more applications that may be running, and from one or more distant sites on the Web and present it as though it all came from the same beginning. Hewlett Packard developed the first such merchandise, which began as a tool for custom-making Windows desktops. CalledDashboard, the HP merchandise was later acquired by Borland and so a company called Starfish. Microsoft’sDigital Dashboardtool incorporates Web-based elements ( such as intelligence, stock quotation marks, and so on ) and corporate elements ( such as electronic mail, applications, and so on ) into Outlook. Splashboards may be customized in a battalion of ways and named consequently, by and large, for illustration as a generalcorporateorenterprise splashboard, or more specifically, as aCIO orCEO splashboard [ 128 ] .

Scorecards

Business Intelligence [ BI ] Scorecard is a tool to help the development along the BI Maturity Lifecycle and increase the strategic concern value of the BI Program. A BI Performance Scorecard is used to track an organisations concern intelligence and informations warehouse deployments map against BI best pattern.

Scorecards have long been used by organisations as a agency of implementing scheme down through the endeavor and measuring advancement against holistic, enterprise-wide public presentation indexs [ KPI ‘s ] .

A Business Intelligence Scorecard works in precisely the same manner. Once BI Opportunities have been defined andBI Roadmap developed, the scorecard provides tracking against both the roadmap and the BI Maturity Lifecycle.

A BI Performance Scorecard acts as a world cheque on whether your BI undertakings are on path, and if non, how to acquire them back on path. It acts as a ocular connection between theBI Strategy and theBI Program

Predictive Analysis

Predictive analytics is the subdivision of informations miningconcerned with the anticipation of future chances and tendencies. The cardinal component of prognostic analytics is thepredictor, a variable that can be measured for an person or other entity to foretell future behaviour. For illustration, an insurance company is likely to take into history possible drive safety forecasters such asage, gender, anddriving recordwhen publishing auto insurance policies.

Multiple forecasters are combined into a prognostic theoretical account, which, when subjected to analysis, can be used to calculate future chances with an acceptable degree of dependability. In prognostic mold, information is collected, a statistical theoretical account is formulated, anticipations are made and the theoretical account is validated ( or revised ) as extra informations becomes available. Predictive analytics are applied to many research countries, including weather forecasting, security, genetic sciences, economic sciences, and selling.

1.5. Business Intelligence as Desktop and Web based Solutions:

1.5.1. Open Beginning:

Some of the major Business Intelligence Open Source tools and platforms those are available in market are discussed below. These are a few BI ( Business Intelligence ) solutions considered competition for Systems Research BI ( Business Intelligence ) platform. List of the tools is as follows ;

A· Pentaho Open BI Suite

Pentaho provides a broad scope of solutions related to managing informations. The merchandises that Pentaho BI suite provides are as follows ; Query and Reporting, Interactive Analysis, Dashboards, ETL/Data Integration, Data Mining, and BI Platform. [ 103 ]

A· SpagoBI

SpagoBI provides Business Intelligence solutions which are of enterprise degree. It supports daily concern operations by supplying in-depth position of informations. SpagoBI consists of five BI faculties, which are, SpagoBI Server, SpagoBI Studio, SpagoBI Meta, SpagoBI SDK, and SpagoBI Application. [ 104 ]

A· Jaspersoft Business Intelligence Suite

Jaspersoft is universe renowned BI package. Its coverage capablenesss have been used by much other package including PentahoBI. Jaspersoft ‘s incorporate coverage and analysis helps client organisations to pull off and do faster, better determinations [ 22 ] . The BI ( Business Intelligence ) faculties of Jaspersoft are ; JasperServer, JasperAnalysis, JasperETL, and JasperReports.

A· Italtel BI

Data Acquisition, Data Aggregation, Prediction, and Collaboration is solutions of Business Intelligence provided by Italtel. They are supplying NGOSS focused BI ( Business Intelligence ) solution, but are non unfastened beginning. [ 102 ]

1.5.2. Closed Beginning:

Following is the list of tools which are proprietary and their usage is restricted to a certain figure of companies who buy their solutions. The solutions provided by these companies are non available in market as a public licence or free of cost.

A· MicroStrategy

A· SAP Business Objects

A· Oracle

A· Microsoft BI

A· IBM Cognos

1.6. Decision:

Above treatment shows that Business Intelligence can be categorized into following types.

1.6.1. Business Intelligence Types:

Business intelligence types can be divided into two major positions, which are as follows ;

    1. Technical Features
    2. Industry Specification Application of BI ( Business Intelligence )

In market Business Intelligence is available in following signifiers ;

1.7. Business Intelligence Tools:

The BI ( Business Intelligence ) tools and faculties are available in two ways either they are unfastened beginning or properness i.e. closed beginning. There are three major types of Business Intelligence tools and faculties that come into usage of endeavors, these are as follows:

A· Desktop

A· Web

A· Mobile

1.8. Business Intelligence Needs in Telecom Industry:

The demands in Telecommunications industry have so increased the necessity for Business Intelligence all the more. Systems Research envisions to supply solutions with cutting border and with latest engineering, to be able to supply the telecom organisations with bigger, better and an extra-ordinary experience with the solutions. Systems Research foresees that a combined solution which involves SaaS, SOA and Web 2.0 gives purchase to telecom organisations to utilize solutions which are web based, and with no fuss to download or purchase as a desktop shelf application or even its security and maintainability. NGOSS gives advanced, and industry best patterns merged to work usage of information with complete external to internal scenes of the Telecom Company, aligned to pave the right way. Open beginning lets the organisation embark on the journey to success by using free of cost BI ( Business Intelligence ) solutions.

1.9. SYSTEMS RESEARCH ASSERTION:

The current market and Systems Research ‘s proposed solution differentiates in many ways. The solution that Systems Research is suggesting creates a difference at many degrees, these are web 2.0 conformity, semantic web compliant, NGOSS ( New Generation Operations Systems and Software ) conformity, Open Source criterions based, based on Software as a Service and On Service Oriented Architecture. Table [ 2 ] identifies that how proposed solution will be better.

Comparison in Table [ 2 ] clearly identifies that non a individual closed or unfastened beginning BI ( Business Intelligence ) solution is near to what Systems Research proposes to supply in its solution. Largely BI ( Business Intelligence ) solutions are vendor specific and the clients are bound by the services they provide. Some unfastened beginning tools have non wholly opened up to the clients the manner Systems Research proposed BI ( Business Intelligence ) would be. Our focal point would be to supply our clients liberate of cost services and working Software as a Service would cut down the cost incurred by resources such as hardware, package purchasing etc.

We look frontward to show state-of-the-art BI ( Business Intelligence ) solution. In the rapid evolutionary period, we mean to make a difference in telecom industry by supplying an unfastened beginning, web 2.0 compliant, semantic web based, NGOSS compliant, SOA ailment, SaaS and Cloud Computing based BI ( Business Intelligence ) , which will decidedly leverage the full capacity of the telecommunications industry from micro to macro degree. The BI ( Business Intelligence ) solution will provide demands of telecommunications industry end-to-end. Our BI ( Business Intelligence ) solutions combined with other proposed systems will hold immense and drawn-out benefit to the organisation using these solutions. Singularity of our proposed solution lies with the strong averment of our characteristics which in a combined signifier have non yet been presented in any closed or unfastened beginning BI ( Business Intelligence ) solutions to-date. And we besides look frontward to farther investigate into the semantics/ web 3.0 and its characteristics for BI ( Business Intelligence ) .

2. CRM:

Telecommunication operators are now progressively looking to optimise the functionality of their CRM systems. This demand arises from the intensifying competition in the telecom industry and the value their services provide to the clients. The competition signifies extra options for the telecom users, which drives the telecom operators to accommodate a client centric attack. The usage of this attack requires the operator to supply agile services which necessitate a recent belief: “ package as a service ” . [ 1 ] .

Most prima unfastened beginning CRM ‘s provide integrating with back terminal endeavor applications and enable direction of assorted procedures in the value concatenation. Some Open beginning CRM ‘s such as SugarCRM and Concursive allow clients to incorporate with endeavor CRM ‘s and to impart spouses. Other CRM systems provide a broad bundle of incorporate constituents such as MaxBill & A ; MaxCare, Compiere and CitrusDB. MaxBill and MaxCare provide two faculties of charge and client attention which enable the client to measure their clients and pull off the minutess between the client and the client. A elaborate description of the taking unfastened beginning CRMs is given in table 1.

These CRM ‘s provide limited functionality to run into with the demands of the users in footings of supplying customized solutions which facilitate their determination devising.

We propose to develop a NGOSS, web 2.0 enabled, unfastened beginning Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ) system which provides optimal experience for the client. This system will enable clients to interact with the endeavor application, integrate with the necessary concern procedures and streamline communicating between the clients and the latest offers and services of an endeavor. [ 115 ] .

2.1. CRM Classs:

There areseveraldifferent attacks to CRM, with different package bundles concentrating on different facets. In general, client service, run direction and gross revenues force direction signifier the nucleus of the system. [ 116 ] This subdivision provides a brief overview of the different sorts of Customer Relationship Management Systems.

2.1.1. Operational CRM

Operational CRM provides support to look office concern procedures, e.g. tosales, marketingand service staff. Interactions with clients are by and large stored in clients ‘ contact histories, and staff can recover client information as necessary.

The contact history provides staff members with immediate entree to of import information on the client ( merchandises owned, anterior support calls etc. ) , extinguishing the demand to separately obtain this information straight from the client. Reaching to the client at right clip at right topographic point is preferred.

Operational CRM processes client informations for a assortment of intents some of which are pull offing runs, gross revenues direction system and endeavor selling mechanization. [ 117 ]

2.1.2. Gross saless ( SFA )

Gross saless force mechanization systems are typically portion of an organisations CRM system. It automatically records all the phases in a gross revenues procedure. SFA includes a contact direction system which tracks the contact made with a peculiar client, the intent and any follow up that may be required after the interaction. This ensures that gross revenues attempts are non duplicated, cut downing the hazard of annoying clients. It besides includes a gross revenues lead tracking system, which lists possible clients through paid phone lists, or clients of related merchandises. Other elements of a SFA system can include gross revenues calculating, order direction and merchandise cognition. More developed SFA systems have featured where clients can really pattern the merchandise to run into their required demands through on-line merchandise edifice systems. This is going progressively popular in industries where customization characteristics are of import. An built-in portion of any SFA system is company broad integrating among different sections. If SFA systems are n’t adopted and decently integrated to all sections, there might be a deficiency of communicating which could ensue in different sections reaching the same client for the same intent. In order to extenuate this hazard, SFA must be to the full integrated in all sections that deal with client service direction. A SFA system automates gross revenues force related activities such as activity direction, tracking responses, coevals studies, chance direction and appraisal.

2.1.3. Analytic CRM

An analytical Customer relationship direction system analyzes client informations tofacilitate the determination devising procedure. Activities such as planing and put to deathing targeted selling runs, client acquisition, cross and up merchandising, analysing client behaviour are merely a few that encompass the functionality of this system. Data excavation techniques are widely used to accomplish these maps.

2.1.4. Gross saless Intelligence CRM

Gross saless Intelligence CRM is similar to Analytical CRM, but is intended as a more direct gross revenues tool. Features include qui vives sing cross/up/switch merchandising chances, client impetus, gross revenues public presentation, client tendencies, borders and alliance.

The termSales intelligence ( SI ) refers to engineerings, applications and patterns for the aggregation, integrating, analysis, and presentation of Gross saless information. The intent of Gross saless intelligence is to back up better concern determination devising by gross revenues people.

SI describes a set of constructs and methods to better Gross saless Performance and determination devising by utilizing fact-based Transaction information. SI is normally incorporate or includes ( CRM ) Customer Relationship Management. Gross saless Intelligence systems are data-driven.

Gross saless Intelligence is similar to Business Intelligence ( BI ) but is specifically designed for the usage of Gross saless Peoples and Gross saless Directors. Gross saless intelligence solutions are preponderantly designed for companies in the fabrication, distribution and sweeping sectors. These are extremely competitory markets, where volumes are high, borders are low.

2.1.5. Campaign Management

Campaign direction combines elements of Operational and Analytical CRM. Its maps encompass organizing mark groups from the client base, directing campaign-related stuff to selected receivers utilizing assorted channels, tracking storing and analysing run statistics, including tracking responses and analysing tendencies.

2.1.6. Collaborative CRM

Collaborative CRM covers facets of a company ‘s traffics with clients that are handled by assorted sections within a company, such as gross revenues, proficient supportand selling. Staff members from different sections can portion information collected when interacting with clients. For illustration, feedback received by client support agents can supply other staff members with information on the services and characteristics requested by clients. Collaborative CRM ‘s ultimate end is to utilize information collected by all sections to better the quality of services provided by the company. [ 118 ]

2.1.7. Consumer Relationship CRM

Consumer Relationship System ( CRS ) covers facets of a company ‘s covering with clients handled by the Consumer Affairs and Customer Relations contact centres within a company.Representatives handle in-bound contact from anon. consumers and clients. Early warnings can be issued sing merchandise issues ( e.g. point recalls ) and current consumer sentiment can be tracked.

2.1.8. e-CRM

As the cyberspace has become progressively of import in concern life, many companies consider it as an chance to cut down customer-service costs, fasten client relationships and most of import, farther personalize selling messages and enablemass customization [ 120 ] Together with the creative activity ofSales Force Automation ( SFA ) , where electronic methods were used to garner informations and analyse client information, the tendency of the upcomingInternet can be seen as the foundation of what we know as eCRM today. We can specify eCRM as activities to pull off client relationships by utilizing theInternet, web browsers or other electronic touch points. The challenge hereby is to offercommunication and information on the right subject, in the right sum, and at the right clip that fits the client ‘s specific demands. [ 121 ] annels through which companies can pass on with its clients, are turning by the twenty-four hours, and as a consequence, acquiring their clip and attending has turned into a major challenge. [ 122 ] One of the grounds eCRM is popular presents is that digital channels can make alone and positive experiences.

CRM plans should be directed towards client value that rivals can non fit. [ 123 ] However, in a universe where about every company is connected to theInternet, eCRM has become a demand for endurance, non merely acompetitive advantage. [ 124 ]

2.2. Different degrees of eCRM

In specifying the range of eCRM, three different degrees can be distinguished:

2.2.1. Foundational services:

This includes the lower limit necessary services such as web site effectivity and reactivity every bit good as order fulfilment.

2.2.2. Customer-centered services:

These services include order trailing, merchandise constellation and customization every bit good as security/trust.

2.2.3. Value-added services:

These are excess services such as on-line auctions and on-line preparation and instruction. [ 14 ]

Self-services are going progressively of import inCRMactivities. The rise of theinternet and eCRM has boosted the options for self-service activities. A critical success factor is the integrating of such activities into traditional channels.

CRM activities are chiefly of two different types. Reactive service is where the client has a job and contacts the company. Proactive service is where the director has decided non to wait for the client to reach the house, but to be aggressive a contact the client himself in order to set up a duologue and work out jobs. [ 16 ]

2.3 CRMS for Telcos

As the telecommunication market grows, merchandises and services besides become more complex ensuing in more pick for the Telco consumer. Telecommunication operators need to admit the demands of their clients and better their keeping schemes [ 130 ] .

It is believed that the Telco CRM and charging companies find it hard to incorporate different solutions. It is because of this ground, that big CRM and Billing participants are doing confederations, and some Billing sellers such as Amdocs and Converges are geting CRM companies. These two markets are meeting despite their evident unreconcilable differences [ 131 ] .

Leading OSS/BSS suppliers have identified the capableness spread between a CRMS designed for all the industries in general and one required by a Telecom operator. This spread is caused by the demand of a convergent BSS attack which includes both gross revenues and selling functionalities. The suggested solution is alining BSS, client direction, gross revenues and selling as a centralised system [ 132 ] .

Upgrading bequest systems is besides a job country defined by Telcos. Issues refering to this are differences in engineering and architecture of state-of-the-art systems versus legacy systems. Such jobs require extra cost and clip for established Telecom Operators while presenting new services and incorporating them with bequest systems [ 133 ] .

Telephone companies have non implemented true ego service for their clients on the web. This basically means supplying all the information a client attention centre offers on the web. E-CRM systems need to be web 2.0 compliant to do coaction for their clients easier. However, bequest systems make interoperability and scalability hard with regard to clip and cost [ 133 ] . This means a important decrease in a Telcos response to the alterations in the market and lower client keeping.

Telcos besides confuse the debut of a Customer Relationship Management System as a replacing of the old system. What in world is a alteration in the manner a Telco does concern is misunderstood to be merely an mechanization procedure. CRM Systems necessitate a alteration in concern procedures and a cardinal displacement to go business-focused and satisfy changing client demands [ 133 ] .

Along with reengineering concern procedures, telecom operators are besides expected to maintain their operating costs low and keep a client centric attack while establishing services and box programs [ 134 ] .

Surveies from telecom market research and Dittberner Associates predicts growing in the CRM and related client activities to make a growing of $ 1.3 Billion in 2010. This addition is due to complexness of pricing, advancing and personalization of following coevals telecom services [ 135 ] .

To run into these challenges, the demand for hosted/SaaS CRM Systems compared to box CRM is increasing. This will assist Telcos maintain and increase their client turnover and avoid big investings [ 136 ] .

A set of criterions and best patterns for transforming the concern demands and operations has besides been introduced. This model, known as the New Generation Operations Support Systems, streamlines package development by enabling reuse of standardised ( NGOSS compliant ) systems [ 137 ] .

Research houses besides forecast the growing of CRM challenges as merchandise complexness continues to turn. This is because of consumer acquaintance with commoditized services such as the telecasting which will be substituted by the IPTV and the telephone with VOIP. Changes in the acquisition curve of consumers will necessitate consumer instruction and support resources to ease consumers as merchandise portfolios of Telcos addition in both the sum of products/services and their complexness. [ 138 ]

Telcos non merely necessitate to put in engineering and automate procedures, but largely have to alter the concern processes they are following. To guarantee all systems are synchronized, Telcos pay big amounts of money to guarantee the smooth interaction between the systems of different sections. For this, they largely resort to put ining big OSS/BSS Suites which handle concern procedures of the full organisation. These enterprise state-of-the-art systems are dearly-won and non suited for little to medium sized Telcos.

We propose to develop a NGOSS, web 2.0 enabled, unfastened beginning Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ) system which provides optimal experience for the client. This system will enable clients to interact with the endeavor application, integrate with the necessary concern procedures and streamline communicating between the clients and the latest offers and services of an endeavor.

B. NGOSS:

Whilst the TeleManagement Forums ‘s New Generation Operations Systems and Software ( NGOSS ) plan and the OSS through Java Initiative ( OSS/J ) plan have different focal point, both have the ultimate end of advancing the bringing of reclaimable OSS solutions to service suppliers.

The NGOSS plan has focused on concern facets of OSS solutions whereas the OSS/Jprogram has focused on execution facets. Closer coaction between the TMF and OSS/J is seen as valuable for both organisations and for the industry as a whole.

NGOSS Architectural Principles

1.1 Modeling

1.1.1 Shared Information Model

An NGOSS system must be characterized by the use of a common information theoretical account for enabling integrating and interoperability. The information theoretical account should be more than merely a standard representation of data-it must besides specify semantics and behaviour of, and interaction between, managed entities. This set of information, all provided in a standard representation utilizing standard data-types, is used to depict sphere information ( e.g. , orders, web service and constellation definitions ) in an NGOSS system.

1.1.1.1 Security Policy Model

An NGOSS system should be designed harmonizing to an overarching security theoretical account. An execution of an NGOSS system will necessitate the apparatus and operation of one or more security mechanisms and policies in order to run the NGOSS system in a secure mode. To this terminal, the security commissariats have been structured around the ISO 17799 Information Security Management criterions ; it provides a model to pull off and run an NGOSS system to run into the security aims of an operating company.

1.1.1.2 Policy Management Model

The NGOSS system architecture is defined as a policy-enabled direction architecture. The term policy-enabled is defined as a system that operates utilizing policies to do present and future determinations. In other words, if a system is policy-enabled, so the operation and direction of that system is dependent on the executing of policies. Stated more by and large, policies provide regulations that govern behavior within a system. Policy regulations are defined to run into concern, system, or other aims ; accordingly, policies may associate one or more of the concern, system ( operational ) , and execution positions of the NGOSS system to each other.

1.1.1.3 Business Process Model

An NGOSS system must be characterized by the separation of the hard-coded behaviour of constituents from the package that automates concern procedures across the components-i.e. an NGOSS system should be composed of defined services that can be orchestrated utilizing scripting/process direction engineerings. An NGOSS system is farther characterized by externalized descriptions of behaviour expressed in a technology-neutral mode. Examples of this are:

A· The external description of a service is separated from one or more specific executions through a representation called a contract. Contracts enable different facets of the concern, system, execution and deployment positions of an application to be integrated through the usage of information models1

A· A concern procedure is represented by an feasible meta-language description, which describes the flow of executing between contract cases and System behaviour is controlled through the usage of different types of direction paradigms.

A business-process theoretical account may raise lower-level business-process theoretical accounts. This means that a business-process measure that a service supplier desires to automatize ( e.g. , verifying that the web can back up the provisioning of a coveted service ) may be made up of one or more lower-level interactions with different system runtime entities that provide the necessary services ; lower-level business-process theoretical accounts used in this manner must be able to supply one or more contract cases to which the higher-level concern procedure theoretical account can adhere. That means that multi-level procedure direction can be supported.

Process direction is the realisation of modern concern direction techniques in concern procedure mechanization solutions. This includes techniques for specifying, mensurating, analysing, proving, and deploying concern procedures every bit good as put to deathing them. All of these activities form a portion of concern procedure mechanization, and so must lend to the end of bettering concern consequences for telecommunications service suppliers.

1.1.2 OSS Business Applications

An OSS concern application provides services that realize the business-related functionality specified utilizing NGOSS such as charge, evaluation and discounting, web informations direction, and others. OSS concern applications deployed as an NGOSS solution are characterized as follows:

1.1.2.1 NGOSS Integrated Applications:

NGOSS integrated applications are package constituents designed from the start for deployment in an NGOSS environment. Such applications are constructed with the undermentioned properties:

A· Functionality accessible through NGOSS contractual interfaces ;

A· Externally seeable informations conforms to a standard information theoretical account that can be mapped onto the NGOSS Shared Information and Data Model ( SID ) ; and

A· Business procedure and policy direction functionality that is separated from the execution of the application and specified utilizing a set of concern procedure processs ( see Business Process Model above ) . In this mode, concern procedure and policy direction techniques are applied to the separate concern procedure and policy definitions which in bend orchestrate the flow between constituents of solutions and applications.

1.1.2.2 Integrated Legacy Applications

Integrated bequest applications are package constituents that were developed outside the range of an NGOSS architecture and that have later been made available as NGOSS constituents either by:

A· Fully encapsulating them with an NGOSS conformant negligee ( i.e. , a package wrapper that provides entree to the functionality of the bequest application through NGOSS contractual interfaces and maps informations made seeable by those contracts onto the common information theoretical account used by the NGOSS deployment into which the bequest applications is integrated ) ; or

A· Selectively encapsulating specific functionality of the bequest application by developing accessory package which provides a contractual interface and informations function for that specific functional interface.

1.1.3 Framework Services

Framework services provide the distributed computer science functionality needed to implement the architecture for right operation. Interfaces to these services are provided through appropriate contract specifications.

1.1.4 OSS Framework Services:

OSS model services provide standard OSS/BSS capablenesss whose functionality is common to many OSS/BSS services and which can be orchestrated by those OSS/BSS services. OSS Framework Services are an optional ( but most likely will be included in some mode in all but the most fiddling OSS/BSS deployment ) portion of the NGOSS architecture. Examples of OSS model services include: Logging Services and Tracing Services.

1.1.5 Basic Framework Services:

Basic Framework Services provide the basic service-distribution capablenesss needed to back up the forms of interaction between constituents implementing concern services. The Basic Framework Services may besides be used by the other services. For illustration, the procedure definition for charge would really be found by bringing it from the depository. The Basic Framework Services are non optional. Each NGOSS deployment must include at least one case of each of the Distribution and Transparency Services that comprise the Basic Framework Services ( e.g. naming, enrollment, or service location ) .

1.1.6 Distribution and Transparency Services:

The TNA Distribution and Transparency Services are NGOSS Technology Neutral Architecture framework-level services that are cardinal to the building, deployment and usage of solutions in an NGOSS environment. An case of each service must be included in each NGOSS deployment. Servicess include:

A· Naming: to screen prospective users from the complexnesss ( and built-in incomprehensibility ) of web references ;

A· Repositories ( or registry services ) : shop and supply information about available distributed services ;

A· Registration Services: supply for the disposal of services including the add-on, alteration, and remotion of services from the depository, and the ability to shop services antecedently added to the depository ;

A· Service Location Services: ease matchmaking between possible manufacturers and consumers. These services accept petitions for a peculiar service from possible consumers and lucifer that petition against registered manufacturers for that service stored in the depository.

1.2 NGOSS Contract Schemata

The most recent papers depicting NGOSS contract scheme is [ 11 ] . The scheme for the Systems Contract is divided into five chief parts:

A· General Contract Part: this portion identifies the contract and ends in an unambiguous manner, and hosts a proxy for a textual description of the contract ;

A· Functional Part: this portion defines the capablenesss provided by the contract, restraints placed upon the usage of those capablenesss, and the context in which it can be used.

A· Management Part: this portion defines the direction capablenesss needed to run capablenesss, assess resource cost, assess service cost, assign QoS, describe geographic restraints, describe resource restraints, describe operational restraints and describe legal restraints of a contract.

A· Non Functional Part: this portion defines facets needed for proper operation of the capablenesss specified by the contract ( e.g. , security and direction operations ) , every bit good as other considerations ( e.g. , cost ) .

A· System-specific Model Part: this portion contains assorted types of UML theoretical accounts to back up the specification and description of the functional and non-functional parts. This portion supports the lifecycle direction of the service, and any resources required to configure and keep that service, in an OSS architecture.

The characteristics of the Genie CRM are derived from NGOSS and will back up the concern procedures defined in the enhanced Telecom Operations Map ( eTOM ) model. This established model will heighten the functionality of the system by enabling the terminal user and the developer community to interoperate the CRM System with other systems. The extension to the system will be done through the extended procedure definitions in the NGOSS model.

The diagram above shows the four chief quarter-circles of the NGOSS lifecycle. The diagram is highlighted with four farther positions. The CRMS will be mapped onto these four quarter-circles by specifying the concern processes, finding the communicating of these four quarter-circles with each other, specifying and implementing them utilizing engineering impersonal architecture and eventually, deploying the system in a cloud for organisations to entree them.

The interface of the CRMS, both backend and front-end, is sought to be interoperable with other systems. To supply this functionality at the backend, contracts/ interfaces will be used which are defined in the different faculties of the NGOSS model. These contracts provide a criterion for the telecom industry to do different systems work without the prejudice of a combination of engineerings used at the backend.

C. Open Source

Research into free and unfastened beginning package development undertakings has so far mostly focused on how the major undertakings of package development are organized and motivated. But a complete undertaking requires the executing of “ mundane but necessary ” undertakings as good. We explore how the mundane but necessary undertaking of field support is organized in the instance of Apache web waiter package, and why some undertaking participants are motivated to supply this service gratis to others. We find that the Apache field support system maps efficaciously. We besides find that, when we partition the aid system into its constituent undertakings, 98 % of the attempt expended by information suppliers in fact returns direct larning benefits to those suppliers. This determination well reduces the mystifier of why information suppliers are willing to execute this undertaking “ for free. ” Deductions are discussed. [ 21 ]

By looking at unfastened beginning package, package use and development turned out to be inseparable. Therefore the development procedure starts with the first related thought and ends with the remotion of the package from the last hosting computing machine system. Another consequence is the direct or indirect inclusion of all users in the development, though ; some of them might merely often update their package constituents.

In order to manage these new fortunes, the major undertaking of particular development environments for unfastened beginning package is the proviso of a suited information and communicating substructure. This substructure must see all particular characteristics of the full procedure of unfastened beginning package development, peculiarly, the mentioned integrating of users in the development procedure.

1. Basic Structure

Several basic constructions have been identified that could assist to make a complete unfastened beginning theoretical account in the hereafter. The undermentioned gives a short sum-up [ 22 ]

* Social background

* Organization of Open Source Undertakings

* Technical Support for Undertakings

2. Social background

The unfastened beginning community is non governed by any cardinal authorization which represents its members or is entitled to make up one’s mind and implement any sort of regulations. Therefore the unfastened beginning community can non be examined as an organisation, but merely as a societal phenomenon including many different interacting organisations and persons.

Without a cardinal direction the community depends significantly on societal dealingss of the planetary Internet society. The ensuing dependences have a strong impact on activities inside the community and its interaction with the remainder of the universe. For this ground I tried to place the major societal constructions by look intoing assorted facets of the community like economic system, jurisprudence, doctrine of scientific discipline, political relations, history and package technology.

The scrutiny has helped to derive a basic apprehension of the unfastened beginning phenomenon. In peculiar, the function of rational belongings and the particular application of matching jurisprudence by unfastened beginning undertakings is the most of import consequence. As the definition of the term ‘open beginning package ‘ is based on the affiliated licences, they turned out to be the lone sensible indicant to separate unfastened beginning undertakings from other 1s.

These unfastened beginning licences should be seen as the legal representation of more complex theoretical accounts. The topic of these theoretical accounts is package and all related issues like development or use. Additionally, it is of import to understand that each licence is derived from different underlying rules that might belong to assorted classs like economic system, doctrine or political relations.

Therefore the unfastened beginning phenomenon should non be considered as one united motion of any sort, but as a aggregation of many different believing persons and parties that have the same involvement in a little field. When covering all take parting parties, the lone general understanding appears to be the credence of unfastened beginning package as a utile thing. Actually, some parties seem to merely digest unfastened beginning package for the minute because it does more good than injury to their personal involvements.

Open beginning undertakings ( OSPs ) as the organisation signifier of package developers turned out to be the basic component of the societal web of the community. Although many economical activities are based on undertaking ‘s consequences, OSPs themselves do non look to follow economical rules for assorted grounds, e.g. the deficiency of concern direction. Sing OSPs as academic research appears to be a more suited theoretical account.

3. Organization of Open Source Undertakings

OSPs are forced to accommodate themselves to the particular conditions of their activities like distributed rank, no direct income or no strong direction. These fortunes normally result in certain organisational constructions in most instances which have the undermentioned effects:

A· Many committed users take part in OSPs. Actually, most undertakings are started by users which have non found the right constituent for their ain demands. For this ground, there is no hazard that the consequence will non fulfill its users. Additionally, let go ofing package as unfastened beginning gives anyone the chance to do constituents suit his demands by take parting in the undertaking or get downing a coincident one.

A· Precisely stipulating the undertaking of a package constituent prior to execution turned out to be a hard and expensive undertaking for package development in general, but specifications are frequently required for a concern contract to clear up the given occupation. As OSPs do non acquire paid for bring forthing any consequences, they do non necessitate such specifications either. Alternatively, they use early and frequent package releases to near the constituent ‘s existent undertaking by uninterrupted alteration.

A· Any sort of OSP direction needs the consentaneous blessing of involved undertaking members because they are voluntaries. For this ground traditional direction based on authorization power does non work and bing direction normally merely suggests working undertakings and selects finished consequences, but any participant is really free to make what he wants while working. Unmanaged activities are coordinated by societal interaction supported by package tools and Internet services. Finally, competition on all degrees eliminates inefficient processs.

A· A comparatively optimized coordination procedure of the person developers, the undertakings and the unfastened beginning community as a whole is one consequence. Since coordination is one of the major jobs for the direction of traditional package development this is an of import facet.

A· Developers are normally motivated, self-responsible and originative because everything is their ain pick.

A· Since communicating takes topographic point via the Internet the full development procedure is comparatively crystalline, though, merely skilled individuals might understand the exchanged information.

4. Technical Support for Undertakings

Since proficient support AIDSs have been altering quickly the major attempt was their aggregation and observation. The probe of development tools and Internet services has led to three major topics: experienced jobs, required support undertakings and emerging support services.

Several support services have been started during the last twelvemonth. Their success, measured by the figure of users, indicates that they provided an improved substructure for the unfastened beginning community. Although the service suppliers have non found the optimum manner to back up the alleged ‘open beginning theoretical account ‘ yet, the services are continuously improved by frequent alterations and extensions. Additionally, most of the package used by the suppliers is unfastened beginning itself and related OSPs can once more take part in the development to buttonhole for their personal involvements.

5. Business benefits of Open Source

Using Open Source for the IT substructure, networking protocols, networking waiters, DNS, DHCP, etc. should be the norm for all. Open Source runing system on the latest 64 spot commercial off the shelf hardware enables server consolidation and the replacing of proprietary waiters and runing systems. The benefits are big nest eggs that can be achieved.

The usage of Open Source Software ( OSS ) is, for most organisations, the most effectual manner to cut down costs and better system dependability and security. The cost nest eggs are because:

A· Open Source OS & A ; Applications seldom fails – mean-time between failures is measured in months and frequently old ages ;

A· OSS is unafraid by design – it is being used by the USA Government for secure computer science ;

A· OSS is virus immune by design ;

A· OSS is designed to interwork – published interfaces and no concealed codification ;

A· no forced alteration – Os is written to guarantee backwards compatibility ;

A· low cost or free licence fees ;

A· OSS is free from seller lock in and vendor churn ;

A· Open Source OS like Unix/Linux runs on the latest powerful, low cost, 64 spot commercial off the shelf processors ;

These benefits result in a significantly reduced cost of IT. Using Linux on the desktop besides gives a pronounced betterment in users ‘ productiveness. Users fear of computer science goes because Linux works faithfully and there are no menaces from viruses.

We have concluded that the organisational benefits from the usage of Open Source Billing Software are as follows:

A· Reliability

A· Stability

A· They are delivered through a Web browser Audit ability

A· Cost

A· Flexibility and Freedom

A· Support and Accountability

6. Open beginning Development Tools

A· J2EE

A· Apache / Tomcat

A· My SQL / PostgreSQL / Max DB / Fire Bird / Ingres

D. Web 2.0:

To do the experience of the terminal user enhanced, characteristics of the Web 2.0 will be utilised. These characteristics, such as AJAX, RSS provenders and web logs, better the public presentation of the system, enable customization and allow coaction.

It will roll up information about a specific client and maintain it in a depository as a individual beginning of truth. This collaborative attack is kept to enter all the minutess with a client in the value concatenation to keep any alterations in information.

1. Web 2.0 applications

Web 2.0 applications normally involve the followers.

A· utilizing attacks that support Web criterions.

A· They are antiphonal to a user, frequently in a similar manner to desktop applications.

A· They use rich application interfaces, frequently including pre-built constituents and doodads.

These features are rather different from those in Web 1.0 applications. In fact, the lone thing that the two truly have in common is that both are delivered through a Web browser!

2. Advantages of Web 2.0 architecture

One of the large advantages of the Web 2.0 architecture is that developers can construct applications that are antiphonal to the user and their actions. The user does n’t hold to wait for a server response each clip they take an action on the page. There is no more “ stop-start ” when working on the Web.

An advantage for developers is that the popularity of this attack has seen an addition in the figure of tools available for making Web 2.0 applications. There has besides been an detonation in constituents and doodads that provide great functionality to the user.

Adobe late released the Flex Builder model to help developers of SWF applications in much the same manner the Ocular Studio.NET assists.NET developers. The model provides an first-class retarding force and bead environment for making interfaces every bit good as transporting with some advanced constituents for usage in Web 2.0 applications.

In add-on, there are big Numberss of JavaScript libraries and toolkits, including those that link with server-side linguistic communications and those that create user interface doodads.

3. Disadvantages of Web 2.0 architecture

The Web 2.0 architecture does convey associated jobs. It requires developers to larn new accomplishments and rethink the manner they approach the development of Web applications. It can besides necessitate more scheduling than in traditional attacks.

Using Flash/Flex to construct Web 2.0 applications means that users need to hold the Flash Player installed to see content. Trusting on the Ajax attack places a heavy load on developers in composing JavaScript that copes with the vagaries of modern Web browsers.