Ocular Culture and TheoryAssignment Title:Choose one 18Thursdaycentury Irish edifice that you consider to be representative of either Palladianism or Neoclassicism. Describe the external characteristics briefly, and the discuss two of the inside suites, paying peculiar attending to ornament and trappingss.
Executive sum-up… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
Introduction… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .
1. Architecture in Ireland… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .
2. Neoclassicism… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .
2.1. Neoclassic architecture… … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
2.2. Neoclassic furniture… … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
3. Ireland in 18Thursdaycentury… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .
4. Dublin City Hall… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
4.1. Dublin’s City Hall History… … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
4.2. Thomas Cooley… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
4.3. Dublin’s City Hall exterior… … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
4.4. Dublin’s City Hall inside… … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
4.4.1. Rotunda… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
4.4.2. Vaults… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .
Decision… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..
City Hall is regarded as one of the city’s finest neoclassical edifices ( Noel Byrne, 2013 ) . It is dramatic piece of architecture, designed by Thomas Cooley and built as the Royal Exchange for a so comfortable Dublin’s merchandiser population ( Heritage Island, 2014 ) .
The thesis is completed elaborate history interior architecture analysis of 18Thursdaycentury Irish edifice which is representative to Neoclassicism.
External edifice analysis of 18Thursdaycentury Irish edifice which is Dublin City Hall was completed. These identified that Dublin City Hall is neoclassical edifice in Corinthian manner made of Portland rock cloth ( Irish tourer, 2014 ) .
With the findings from research about building’s inside was found that inside is beautiful monolithic domed country bathed in natural visible radiation with the Mosaic floor and Mosaic ceiling ornaments- stucco ( Alone planet, 2014 ) .
Although all, with the determination from research of edifice outside and interior ornament and trappingss, was found, that edifice is Dublin’s most sophisticated 18Thursdaycentury neoclassical edifice ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) .
The intent of the assignment is to take one 18Thursdaycentury Irish edifice, representative to neoclassical manner, and to depict the external characteristics and discourse two of the inside suites which are Rotunda and Vaults of Dublin’s City Hall, paying peculiar attending to ornament and trappingss.
To this terminal, Dublin’s City Hall is known as all right neoclassical edifices non for merely its beauty and breathtaking elegance but for its rich and vivacious history ( Dublin, 2014 ) .
1. Architecture in Ireland
The history of Ireland’s architecture has been shaped by its relationship to Europe and it besides reflects the development of the country’s cultural heritage- Celtic, Christian, Classical and Modern stages ( Prestel, 1997 ) . Ireland is celebrated for its ruined and integral Norman and Anglo- Irish palaces, little white washed thatched bungalows and Georgian urban edifices ( Travel Ireland, 2014 ) .
The term Neoclassicism refers to the classical resurgence in European art, architecture and interior design that lasted from the mid- eighteenth to the early 19th century ( Art History, 2009 ) . Neoclassicism was a resurgence of the classical manner but with the new position ( ask, 2014 ) . This period gave metempsychosis to the art of ancient Rome and Greece, and the Renaissance as a reaction against the Rococo manner of anti- tectonic realistic decoration, and an branch of some classicising characteristics of Baroque that preceded the motion ( Art History, 2009 ; tharanghini, 2013 ) . There were a batch of Western Europe states involved in this motion, but England and France produced the most art work and architecture during this period ( B. Lavenant, 2014 ) .
2.1. Neoclassic architecture
“One of import 18Thursdaycentury mind, the Gallic Jesuit Priest Marc- Antoine Laugier, theorized that all architecture derives from three basic elements: the columns, the entablature, and the pediment” ( J. Craven, 2014 ) .
Neoclassic edifice is likely to hold some of these characteristics:
- “Tall columns that rise the full tallness of the building” ( J. Craven, 2014 ) ;
- “Triangular pediment” ( J. Craven, 2014 ) ;
- “Doomed roof” ( J. Craven, 2014 ) ;
- “Clean, elegant lines” ( World of Level Design, 2008 ) ;
- “Uncluttered appearance” ( World of Level Design, 2008 ) ;
- “Massive buildings” ( World of Level Design, 2008 ) ;
- “Symmetrical shape” ( J. Craven, 2014 ) ;
- Free standing columns- “columns were used to transport the weight of the edifices construction. But subsequently they became used as a graphical element” ( World of Level Design, 2008 ) .
- “Exterior was built to stand for classical flawlessness. Doors and Windowss were built to stand for that flawlessness. Decorations were reduced to a lower limit on outside” ( World of Level Design, 2008 ) .
2.2. Neoclassic furniture
“Neoclassical furniture is characterized by reticent symmetrical design and tends to be rectangular. Architectural inside informations and motives are often utilized for ornament. The furniture legs are frequently turned and fluted in mention to authoritative architectural columns” ( M. A. Wakeling, 2014 ) .
“Chairs and tabular arraies were designed with rectangular forms and slender directly legs. Chair dorsums took on rectangular or shield forms, and the place was really square” ( B. Lavenant, 2014 ) .
“Cabinet shapers and upholsterers started to utilize different types of forests including mahogany, Zanthoxylum flavum, tulipwood, lacewood, and rosewood. They besides started to utilize assorted elaborate painted coatings and brass fittings” ( B. Lavenant, 2014 ) .
“The arrangement of the furniture was really of import, merely as the arrangement of the figures in a picture. Everything was symmetrical and balanced non merely in size of the furniture to the size of the room, but in the sum of pieces placed within each room” ( B. Lavenant, 2014 ) .
3. Ireland in 18th century
“18Thursdaycentury architecture in Ireland and England went through two periods. The first up to 1760 was associated with the Palladian manner. In the latter half of the century the manner changed to a neoclassical style” ( Gill and Macmillan, n.d. ) .
“During the 18Thursdaycentury, the Irish Parliament sat in Dublin and prosperity increased. Dublin became a stylish and elegant city” ( Gill and Macmillan, n.d. ) . This was a fantastic clip for the humanistic disciplines of ornament and architecture in Ireland. Architects and all sorts of craftsmen were brought from the continent of Europe. European influences, began to demo in the new edifices ( Gill and Macmillan, n.d. ) . “Large towns including Dublin saw the development of churches, schools, infirmaries and market houses” ( Gill and Macmillan, n.d. ) .
4. Dublin City Hall
Classical architecture is something that about anyone can appreciate because there are hints of it everyplace like in Dublin City Hall ( Antonio, 2010 ) . As Sir John Gilbert says in his “History of the City of Dublin” ( 1861 ) : “The interior of this building possesses beauties that can non be clearly expressed by words…” ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 )
The City Hall, Dublin ( Irish: Halla na Cathrach, Baile Atha Cliath ) , originally the Royal Exchange, is an outstanding illustration of the city’s finest neoclassical edifices for which Dublin is world- celebrated ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) . It was built between 1769 and 1779, and was originally used to supply a meeting topographic point for Dublin’s business communities, where they could purchase and sell goods and trade measures of exchange ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) . The site cost ?13.500 and ?40.000 for the edifice, which was raised through lotteries ( Archiseek, 2014 ) .
4.1. Dublin’s City Hall History
On 27ThursdayJuly 1768, the society advertised an architectural competition in the Freemans Journal for the design of a new exchange edifice to be erected on a site at Cork Hill, antecedently occupied by the Church of Sante Moire del Dame ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ; Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) . Sixty-one designs were submitted and exhibited to the populace at William Street Visited topographic point, 2014 ) . Competition was won by the designer, Thomas Cooley, with a design preferred to the entry submitted by his more celebrated coeval, James Gandon, who was subsequently to plan Dublin’s Four Courts edifice and the Custom House ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) .
On 2neodymiumAugust 1769 the Lord Lieutenant laid the first rock, and the edifice took ten old ages to finish ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) .
In 1851 edifice was bought by Dublin Corporation which was converted for civic disposal presenting much needed office infinite and subsequently renamed Dublin City Hall ( Dublin, 2014 ) .
4.2. Thomas Cooley
Thomas Cooley ( 1740- 1784 ) was an English- born Irish immature designer who came to Dublin from London after winning a competition for the design of Dublin’s Royal Exchange in 1768, but he did non populate long plenty to construct on this success as he died 15 old ages subsequently ( Wikipedia, 2014 ; Archiseek, 2014 ) .
Cooley’s successful design marked the debut to Ireland of the neoclassical manner ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) .
4.3. Dublin’s City Hall exterior
The neoclassical edifice is situated at the top of Parliament street, right following to Dublin palace on a incline and is placed on a rusticated and balustrade ( N. Byrne, 2013 ) .
It is a square edifice in Corinthian manner, with three foreparts which the two chief frontages at the North and West are similar while the eastern frontage received a plainer intervention ( Irish tourer, 2014, Archiseek, 2014 ) . The pediment frontages have a elephantine order of full beauty of the curving capitals of Corinthian columns made by Simon Vierpyl with three gaps between them ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) . “Originally these room accesss opened into the interior land floor” ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) . This impressive edifice was made of Portland Stone cloth from inside and outside ( Visited place,2014 ) .
4.4. Dublin’s City Hall inside
Immediately when you enter you are in a beautiful vaulted country, the Rotunda ( Dublin, 2014 ) . ”The Rotunda and its ambulatory signifier a breathtaking inside, bathed in natural visible radiation from tremendous Windowss to the east” ( Alone planet, 2014 ) . The edifice is dominated by monolithic cardinal entryway hall with its luxuriant City Corporation seal set into the floor mosaic ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) . The inside is designed as a circle within a square with 12 composite columns, which lifting from the floor, back uping a dome shaped roof over the cardinal hall with magnificent frescoes between each one which was executed by James Ward of the Metropolitan School of Art ( Dublin City Libraries, 2014 ; Archiseek, 2014 ) . There are 12 frescoes in entire, stand foring stages in the early history of Dublin such as St. Patrick baptising the male monarch of Dublin ( Dublin, 2014 ) .
The ceiling of the dome is decorated with Mosaic stucco ( was really popular in all right Irish houses, in town and state likewise ) decorations by the taking stucco Dore Charles Thorp ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ; Gill and Macmillan, n.d. ) . They are divided into little hexangular compartments and in the centre is a big window that lights most of the edifice ( Archiseek, 2014 ) .
“On each side of the fluted columns that support the dome are semi- pilasters of the Iconic order that extend to upwards of half the tallness of the columns” ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) .
In the centre of the floor straight under the dome is composed of ceramic tile handbill mosaic which was installed by the City Architect Charles J. McCarthy, picturing the Dublin City Coat- of- Weaponries in encircled by four 18 pes high statues: Daniel O’Connell ( 1775- 1847 ) , Thomas Drummond ( 1797- 1840 ) , Thomas Davis ( 1814- 1845 ) , Charles Lucas ( 1713- 1771 ) , that played an of import function in the development of Irish Society ( Archiseek, 2014 ; Visited topographic point, 2014 ) . “Outside this the floor is of marble, composed of black and green rings of marble interlaced with ruddy marble. The fillings is made of marble octagons with black marble squares, and bordered with rings of tile mosaic. The boundary line outside the columns is of green circles and in forepart at that place ruddy marble fillings. The floor next the walls is of square marble slabs. The panels of the chief room access are filled with marble octagons and black marble squares, and the front entryway hall is of similar filling of marble as the chief hall” ( Archiseek, 2014 ) .
At each corner of the north side of the Exchange inside are 2 egg-shaped geometrical stairwaies which cantilevered and made of Portland rock ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) . The stairway is taking from the Rotunda to the upper floors and to the land degree of the Vaults- for storage ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) .
The Portland rock stairwaies taking from impressive for its beauty and breathtaking elegance Rotunda to the lower land degree of the superb Vaults which map is storage ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) .
There are four overleaping storage suites where walls were constructed of rock, arches and overleaping made of bricks which support the upper land floor. Lime plaster was applied on all the walls and brick vaulting ( Visited topographic point, 2014 ) .
The assignment was to finish a item 18Thursdaycentury Irish edifice analysis of the building’s exterior and two inside suites, paying peculiar attending to ornament and trappingss. After research was founded that “The Royal Exchange, or City Hall as it is now known, is without doubt one of Dublin’s finest and most sophisticated 18Thursdaycentury edifices and marks the debut to Ireland of the European neoclassical manner of architecture” ( Dublin City Public Libraries, 2014 ) .
From the research besides was found that neoclassicism refers to the classical resurgence in European art, architecture and interior design were England and France produced the most art work and architecture during this period ( B. Lavenant, n.d. ) . These findings show that 18Thursdaycentury was a fantastic clip for the humanistic disciplines of ornament architecture in Ireland ( Gill and Macmillan, n.d. ) .
- Noel Byrne ( 2013 )TrekearthAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.trekearth.com/gallery/Europe/Ireland/South/Dublin/photo1421009.htm ( Accessed 10 April 2014 ) ;
- Heritage Island ( n.d. )Heritageisland.visrezAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //heritageisland.visrez.com/ticket_booking/search_tickets? booking % 5Bevent_selected % 5D=41 ( Accessed 10 April 2014 ) ;
- Irish tourer ( n.d. )Dublin tourerAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dublintourist.com/details/city-hall.shtml ( Accessed 15 April 2014 ) ;
- Lonely planet ( n.d. )Lonely planetAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lonelyplanet.com/ireland/dublin/sights/museums-galleries/city-hall ( Accessed 15 April 2014 ) ;
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- Mark Alexander Wakeling ( n.d. )Timeless interior interior decoratorAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.timelessinteriordesigner.com.au/neo-classical-furniture ( Accessed 12 April 2014 ) ;
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- Wikipedia ( 2014 )WikipediaAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Cooley_ ( designer ) ( Accessed 24 April 2014 ) ;