Android Version Has Been Developed Computer Science Essay

Android is a Linux-based operating system designed chiefly for touchscreen nomadic devices such as smartphones and tablet computing machines, developed by Google in concurrence with the Open Handset Alliance. The version history of the Android runing system began with the release of the Android beta in November 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is a nomadic operating system developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and has seen a figure of updates to its base operating system since its original release. These updates typically fix bugs and add new characteristics.

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Since April 2009, Android versions have been developed under a codename and released in alphabetical order: Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, and Jelly Bean. The most recent update was Jelly Bean v4.1, which was announced in June 2012 and released into a month subsequently. It ‘s just to state that this nomadic platform has taken the universe by storm – in merely a few old ages clip, it ‘s gone from a non-dominant participant in the nomadic OS market to the top Smartphone platform in the U.S. and figure two in the universe. There are even anticipations that it will catch Nokia for the top slot worldwide by 2014.

SWEET DELIGHTS WHICH KEEP ANDROID USERS HAPPY

Version

Release day of the month

API degree

Distribution ( October 2, 2012 )

1.5 Cupcake

April 30, 2009

3

0.1 %

1.6 Doughnut

September 15, 2009

4

0.4 %

2.0, 2.1 Eclair

October 26, 2009

7

3.4 %

2.2 Froyo

May 20, 2010

8

12.9 %

2.3.x Gingerbread

December 6, 2010

9-10

55.8 %

3.x.x Honeycomb

February 22, 2011

11-13

1.9 %

4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich

October 19, 2011

14-15

23.7 %

4.1.x Jelly Bean

July 9, 2012

16

1.8 %

Usage portion of the different versions as of October 2, 2012

File: Android chart.png

ANDROID BETA

The Android beta was released on November 5, 2007, while the package developer ‘s kit ( SDK ) was released on November 12, 2007.

Android 1.0

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The HTC Dream introduced Android 1.0.

Android 1.0 was the first commercial version of the package which was released on 23rd September, 2008. The first Android device-the HTC Dream has the undermentioned Android 1.0 characteristics –

Android 1.0 has the Android Market application which downloads and updates through the Market app

It has the Web browser to demo, rapid climb and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as Windowss ( “ cards ” )

It has full camera support. However, this version lacked the option to alter the camera ‘s declaration, white balance, quality, etc.

It has many booklets which allows the grouping of a figure of app icons into a individual booklet icon on the Home screen. So, it is rather helpful for the users.

It has an entree to net email waiters, back uping POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP.

It has a really good Gmail synchronism with the Gmail app, Google Contacts synchronism with the People app and Google Calendar synchronism with the Calendar app.

It has Google Maps with Latitude and Street View to see the maps and the orbiter imagination. Besides, it has a built-in characteristic which helps in happening the local concern and obtaining the drive waies with the aid of GPS.

It has Google Sync which allows direction of over-the-air synchronism of Gmail, People and Calendar.

Google Search allows the users to seek the Internet and phone apps, contacts, calendar, etc as and when required.

Android 1.0 includes Google Talk instant messaging with the aid of which people can direct instant message in any portion of the universe.

It besides has characteristics which allow instant messaging, text messaging and MMS.

It has a Media Player which enables direction, importation, and playback of media files. However, this version lacked picture and stereo Bluetooth support.

Timely Notifications appears in the Status saloon with the options to put ringtones, LED or quiver qui vives.

Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or figure of the individual.

Wallpaper allows the user to put the background image or exposure behind the Home screen icons and doodads

YouTube picture participant

Other apps include – Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer ( Phone ) , Home screen ( launcher ) , Pictures ( Gallery ) and Settings.

It has a Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support.

ANDROID 1.1

On February 9, 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released ab initio for the HTC Dream merely. Android 1.1 was known as “ Petit Four ” internally, though this name was non used officially. The update resolved bugs, changed the API and added a figure of characteristics in it. Some of them are given below –

The new version of humanoid has inside informations and reappraisals available when a user hunt for the concerns on the Maps.

Android 1.1 has longer in-call screen timeout default when utilizing the speakerphone and it has the ability to show/hide dial tablet.

It has the ability to salvage the fond regards in messages.

It supports added for pavilion in system layouts.

ANDROID 1.5 CUPCAKE

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The Android Emulator default place screen ( v1.5 ) .

On April 30, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released which was based on the Linux kernel 2.6.27. This was the first release to officially utilize a name based on a sweet ( “ Cupcake ” ) . Even though, the cupcake was non the first version of Android, it is the first 1 with a sweet codification name. It was the subject which would be used for all releases henceforth. The update included several new characteristics and UI amendments –

Android 1.5 cupcake has a support for third-party practical keyboards with text anticipation and user lexicon for usage words.

It has support for Widgets – illumination application positions that can be embedded in other applications ( such as the Home screen ) and receive periodic updates.

It includes Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats.

It has Auto-pairing and two-channel support for Bluetooth added ( A2DP and AVRCP profiles )

It has transcript and paste characteristics which are added to the web browser.

It includes user images which are shown for Favorites in Contacts.

Android cupcake has specific date/time cast shown for the events in call log and one-touch entree to a contact card from the call log event.

It has animated screen passages

It has added the auto-rotation option and the current stock boot life.

It has the ability to upload pictures to YouTube and ability to upload exposures to Picasa.

Android 1.6 Donut

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The Android 1.6 place screen.

This is the Android V1.6, released in September 2009. This version corrected earlier reboot mistakes in the old operating system and added updated camera characteristics while bettering the hunt integrating. Sweet doughnut besides came around to adding support for a larger screen size and the first of all time turn-by-turn pilotage system by Google. This version has an API degree 4. There were legion new characteristics that that given below-

This new version has voice and text entry hunt enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts and the web.

It has the ability for developers to include their content in the hunt consequences.

This version has a Multi-lingual address synthesis engine to let any Android application to “ talk ” a twine of text.

It become easier to seek and the ability to see app screenshots in Android Market.

It came with more to the full incorporate gallery, camera and camcorder with faster camera entree.

It was helpful for users to choose multiple exposures for omission.

This version has updated engineering support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs and a text-to-speech engine.

It has a support for WVGA screen declarations.

This version has speed betterments in seeking and more camera applications.

It has Expanded Gesture model and new Gesture Builder development tool.

Android 2.0/2.1 Eclair

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The Motorola Droid, running Android 2.0.

October 26th 2009, Android released the Eclair, version 2.0. This version was rich in characteristics – non Calories. It added an component created to repair old bugs in December 2009 and besides added Bluetooth 2.1 support along with enhanced camera capablenesss and multi-touch support for unrecorded wallpapers. The API degree is 7.

This version has a Expanded Account sync which allows the users to add multiple histories to a device for electronic mail and contact synchronism.

Exchange email support, with combined inbox to shop electronic mail from multiple histories in one page

It has Bluetooth 2.1 support.

It has the ability to tap a Contacts exposure and select to name, SMS, or e-mail the individual.

It has the ability to seek all saved SMS and MMS messages and deletes oldest messages in a conversation automatically when a defined bound is reached.

It includes legion new camera characteristics, including brassy support, digital rapid climb, scene manner, white balance, colour consequence and macro focal point.

It has an improved typewriting velocity on practical keyboard with smarter lexicon that learns from word use and includes contact names as suggestions.

It has a refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap rapid climb and support for HTML5

It has a enhanced Calendar docket position which shows go toing position for each guest and the ability to ask for new invitees to the events.

This version has optimized hardware velocity and revamped UI.

It has a support for more screen sizes and declarations with better contrast ratio.

It has an Improved Google Maps 3.1.2 and Motion Event category enhanced to track multi-touch events.

It has an add-on of unrecorded wallpapers which allows the life of home-screen background images to demo motion.

Android 2.2.x Froyo

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Google ‘s Nexus One was the first smartphone to have Android 2.2 Froyo.

Froyo or ‘frozen yoghurt ‘ version 2.2 was released in May 20, 2010 with an API degree of 7. An improved velocity was demonstrated by Android as Google browser Chrome was added, every bit good as animated GIF support, Flash 10.1 support, betterments in USB capablenesss and WiFi.

It has the undermentioned characteristics –

Android 2.2 Froyo has speed, memory and public presentation optimisations.

It has an extra application velocity betterments, implemented through JIT digest.

It has integrating of Chrome ‘s V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application

This version supports the Android Cloud to Device Messaging ( C2DM ) service, enabling push presentments.

It has an Improved Microsoft Exchange support which includes security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronism and remote rub.

It has an improved application launcher with cutoffs to Phone and Browser applications.

It besides includes USB tethering and Wi-Fi hot spot functionality.

It has an added an option to disenable informations entree over nomadic web.

It includes Updated Market application with batch and automatic update characteristics.

There is a speedy shift between multiple keyboard linguistic communications and their lexicons.

One can hold Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth.

Support for Bluetooth-enabled auto and desk docks

Support for numeral and alphameric watchwords

Support for file upload Fieldss in the Browser application

Support for put ining applications to the expandible memory

Adobe Flash support for extra-high-PPI screens ( 320 ppi ) , such as 4 ” 720p

It has a gallery that allows users to see image tonss utilizing a rapid climb gesture.

Android 2.3.x Gingerbread

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Google ‘s Nexus S introduced Android 2.3 Gingerbread.

This 2.3 version was released in December 6, 2010 with an API degree of 9 – 10. Our gingerbread adult male allows for a host of add-ons such as download directors, compatibility with other devices and cyberspace naming.

Changes included:

Updated user interface design with increased simpleness and velocity

Support for extra-large screen sizes and declarations ( WXGA and higher )

Native support for SIP VoIP cyberspace telephone

Faster, more intuitive text input in practical keyboard, with improved truth, better suggested text and voice input manner

Enhanced copy/paste functionality, leting users to choose a word by press-hold, transcript, and paste

Support for Near Field Communication ( NFC ) , leting the user to read an NFC ticket embedded in a posting, spine, or advertizement

New audio effects such as reverb, equalisation, earphone virtualization, and bass encouragement

New Download Manager, giving users easy entree to any file downloaded from the browser, electronic mail, or another application

Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available

Support for WebM/VP8 picture playback, and AAC sound encryption

Improved power direction with a more active function in pull offing apps that are maintaining the device awake for excessively long

Enhanced support for native codification development

Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices.

Audio, graphical, and input sweetenings for game developers

Coincident refuse aggregation for increased public presentation

Native support for more detectors ( such as gyroscopes and barometers )

Android 3.x Honeycomb

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The Motorola Xoom tablet introduced Android 3.0 Honeycomb.

This 3.0 version was released in February 22, 2011 with an 11 – 13 API degree. It allows for the running of an Android-based tablet called the Motorola Xoom. A Allows for picture confab, multi-tasking with an action saloon to entree all your screens rapidly and toggle back and Forth.

The update ‘s characteristics included:

Optimized tablet support with a new practical and “ holographic ” user interface

Added System Bar, having speedy entree to presentments, position, and soft pilotage buttons, available at the underside of the screen

Added Action Bar, giving entree to contextual options, pilotage, doodads, or other types of content at the top of the screen

Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Apps in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the undertakings afoot and rapidly leap from one app to another

Redesigned keyboard, doing typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes

Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface

Multiple browser check replacing browser Windowss, plus form auto-fill and a new “ incognito ” manner leting anon. browse

Quick entree to camera exposure, focal point, flash, rapid climb, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera characteristics

Ability to see albums and other aggregations in full-screen manner in Gallery, with easy entree to thumbnails for other exposures

New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to allow users easy form and turn up contacts

New two-pane Email UI to do screening and forming messages more efficient, leting users to choose one or more messages

Support for picture confab utilizing Google Talk

Hardware acceleration

Support for multi-core processors

Ability to code all user informations

HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication ( SNI )

Filesystem in Userspace ( FUSE ; meats faculty )

Android 4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich

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The Samsung Galaxy Nexus introduced Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich.

The SDK for Android 4.0.1 ( Ice Cream Sandwich ) , based on Linux meat 3.0.1, was publically released on October 19, 2011. Google ‘s Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was “ theoretically compatible ” with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that clip. The beginning codification for Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011.The update introduced legion new characteristics, including:

Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for usage on phones

Separation of doodads in a new check, listed in a similar mode to apps

Easier-to-create booklets, with a drag-and-drop manner

A customizable launcher

Improved ocular voice mail with the ability to rush up or decelerate down voice mail messages

Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar

Integrated screenshot gaining control ( accomplished by keeping down the Power and Volume-Down buttons )

Improved mistake rectification on the keyboard

Ability to entree apps straight from lock screen

Improved transcript and paste functionality

Better voice integrating and uninterrupted, real-time address to text command

Face Unlock, a characteristic that allows users to unlock French telephones utilizing facial acknowledgment package

New tabbed web browser under Google ‘s Chrome trade name, leting up to 16 checks

Automatic syncing of browser with users ‘ Chrome bookmarks

A new font household for the UI, Roboto

Data Usage subdivision in scenes that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage bound, and disable informations usage when the bound is exceeded

Ability to close down apps that are utilizing informations in the background

Improved camera app with nothing shutter slowdown, clip lapse scenes, view manner, and the ability to whizz while entering

Built-in exposure editor

New gallery layout, organized by location and individual

Refreshed “ Peoples ” app with societal web integrating, position updates and hi-res images

Android Beam, a near-field communicating characteristic leting the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, waies, YouTube picture and other informations

Support for the WebP image format

Hardware acceleration of the UI

Wi-Fi Direct

1080p picture entering for stock Android devices

Android VPN Framework ( AVF ) , and TUN ( but non TAP ) meat faculty. Prior to 4.0, VPN package required rooted Android.

Android 4.1.x Jelly Bean

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Android 4.1 Jelly Bean on the Asus Nexus 7

Google announced Android 4.1 ( Jelly Bean ) at the Google I/O conference on June 27, 2012. Based on Linux meat 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary purpose of bettering the functionality and public presentation of the user interface. The public presentation betterment involved “ Project Butter ” , which uses touch expectancy, ternary buffering, extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 Federal Protective Services to make a fluid and “ pantry ” -smooth UI. Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to on July 9, 2012, and the Nexus 7, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012.

It has the undermentioned characteristics –

Smoother user interface:

Vsync timing across all drawing and life done by the Android model, including application rendition, touch events, screen composing and show refresh

Ternary buffering in the artworks grapevine

Enhanced handiness

Bi-directional text and other linguistic communication support

User-installable keyboard maps

Expandable presentments

Ability to turn off presentments on an app specific footing

Shortcuts and doodads can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to let new points to suit on place screens

Bluetooth informations transportation for Android Beam

Offline voice command

New interface layout for tablets with smaller screens or phablets ( whose screens more closely resemble that of a phone )

Improved voice hunt

Improved camera app

Google Wallet ( for the Nexus 7 )

High-resolution Google+ contact exposure

Google Now search application

Multichannel sound

USB sound ( for external sound DACs )

Audio chaining ( besides known as gapless playback ) Stock Android browser is replaced with the Android nomadic version of Google Chrome in devices with Android 4.1 preinstalled

Ability for other launchers to add doodads from the app drawer without necessitating root entree