Survey – a procedure of garnering information from a group of people, specified for the intent. This study discusses conventional study procedure, including the methodological analysis used for the intent, assorted issues in this procedure and applications or utilizations of study for assorted Fieldss of scientific disciplines.
The Word Survey:
In dictionary, the word study is verb ( used with object ) , significance:
To take a general or comprehensive position of, or appraise, as a state of affairs, country of survey etc
To see in item, particularly to inspect, analyze, or measure officially or officially in order to determine status or value etc.
To carry on a study of or among: to study Television viewing audiences. [ 1 ]
In simple words, a study is a procedure of probe, scrutiny of something under survey, in order to pull some decision about it.
What is Survey? – The “ Survey ” Defined:
Survey can be defined a figure of ways:
“ A method of garnering information from a sample of persons – a sample is a fraction of the population being studied ” . [ 2 ]
“ A study is a non-experimental, descriptive research – where research workers sample a population. A population is any set of individuals or objects that posses at least one common characteristic ” . [ 3 ]
“ A study is a method of roll uping information from a sample of the population or sometimes organisations, we are interested in ” . [ 4 ]
“ The most common type of quantitative, societal scientific discipline research, where the research worker selects a sample of respondents from a population and administers a standardised questionnaire to them ” . [ 5 ]
From all of the descriptions given, it is evident that a study is a societal scientific discipline activity where information is based on the sentiments, believing, behaviours of a group of people – called sample – that represent wider group/collection of people called population.
The information therefore obtained is used for assorted intents, as discussed below:
Purpose of Survey:
For a successful concern, it is of import to cognize what the client wants. Similarly assorted intelligence and authorities bureaus wants to cognize what the public thinks, big companies want to cognize about the attitude of their employees. [ 6 ]
Different web sites want to cognize how to custom-make their site that better reflect the demands of their users. A study is the best manner for all such state of affairss to acquire acquainted with.
A study provides a speedy & A ; economical agencies of finding facts about economic sciences & A ; people ‘s cognition, attitude, beliefs and behaviours. It provides an of import beginning of basic scientific cognition. [ 2 ]
Stairss in Survey Project – Procedure Involved in carry oning Survey:
For carry oning study utilizing conventional methods, following stairss are necessary to take. [ 2 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
Measure 01: Establish the ends of the undertaking – What You Will Desire to Know
The first measure, which lays out the foundation of the procedure, is to specify the intent of the study, in simple and in an unambiguous linguistic communication. Besides the ends should be as much particular as possible because the more specific the ends, the easier it will be to acquire useable replies. [ 2 ] [ 6 ]
Measure 02: Determine Your Sample – Whom You Will Ask
Two things are of import to see in this respect:
Target Population – means what sort of people is to be interviewed which wholly depends on the aims of the study.
Sample Size – means how many people you need to interview which depends on:
Purpose of the study
Statistical quality needed for study findings & A ;
Financial & A ; professional resources available.
However, moderate sample size should be selected as it is sufficient statistically & A ; operationally. [ 2 ] [ 6 ]
Measure 03: Choose Survey Methodology – How Will You Ask
A study can be conducted in two ways:
Written Survey – Questionnaires
Interviews – Oral Surveies
A written study consists of questionnaire that is a paper-and-pencil instrument that the respondent completes – consisting of three attacks:
It is the self-reported informations aggregation procedure which is directed towards a specific group e.g. endorsers to a specialised magazine or members of professional organisation.
It is a recommended option when the coveted sample consists of highly-educated and actual respondents holding involvement in the topic being surveyed. [ 9 ]
In this method, a questionnaire is designed with specific accent given to the type of inquiries as the interviewer is non present when the respondents fills out the questionnaire. The questionnaire is sent to respondents of the sample through the station with a return envelope so that the respondent can direct it when filled with convenience.
Relative depression in cost
Particularly effectual in concern
Questionnaire can hold images, diagrams – something that is non possible on telephone.
Allows respondents to response at their leisure – when they are free and in manner to set replies.
Time devouring than other studies – respondents may react after several hebdomads and responses may be received subsequently.
Planing the questionnaire is hard because the respondent has to reply the inquiries in the absence of study worker.
Lower educational & A ; literacy degrees causes responses to be small utile.
Drop-Down Survey/Household Drop-Off Survey
In this type of study, a questionnaire is designed and so a meeting is scheduled with each respondent at his easiness and his house or work country. At the twenty-four hours of meeting, the respondent is told about the importance of the study and the questionnaire is handled over to him to make full it at his leisure – within a specified continuance.
After the specified continuance, the questionnaires are collected back from them & A ; so further work is preceded. [ 5 ]
Respondents have a convenience by make fulling it at their leisure/convenience.
As respondents are cognizant of the importance of study so it has a better response rate than mail studies.
Time-consuming than mail study as you have to run into the respondents twice and the clip taken by them for make fulling the questionnaire between these two meetings.
Consequences in smaller sample size-because meeting so many people & A ; in such a manner is hard & A ; clip devouring – so a smaller sample is selected.
Response rate is still slow. [ 5 ]
Here a group from mark population is given a briefing and at the terminal of run intoing a questionnaire, they are given a questionnaire to make full or the group is questioned and everyone is free to reply, it is possible that some people do n’t cognize about replying a peculiar inquiry and other may reply it – ensuing in a completed questionnaire where every inquiry gets answered.
High response rate because the study is carried out to a sample of respondents.
Can function a assortment of specific intents peculiarly when you want to study a v3ery specific group of people. [ 5 ]
As used for specific group of respondents so it requires a little sample size and therefore ca n’t be used for studies that benefit from big sample.
Another job is of scheduling as it would be hard to stipulate a clip frame that is convenient for respondents of the group. [ 5 ]
An interview is a type of study that is answered and completed based on the expressions of the respondent. [ 8 ] . Interviews are conducted in two ways:
Personal interview is an in the flesh, face-to-face study procedure where the interviewer can besides see the feelings, emotions, face feelings of the individual being interviewed, and can take topographic point anyplace, any clip e.g. at place, shopping promenade, street, before a film hall, theatre, church or mosque, canvassing topographic point, at a coach halt and so on.
At a peculiar clip, either a individual respondent or a group can be surveyed.
The interviewer can explicate the significance of a inquiry if the respondent does non understand it.
Response rate is high as you can interview as many respondents as you need for coveted sample size, under available budget.
Costly as it requires clip to roll up informations for complete study.
Bias from the interviewer or interviewee – prejudice means to below the belt act upon person ‘s sentiments or determination.
As the interviewer fills the questionnaire so answering ca n’t see types of inquiries asked. [ 5 ]
The respondents are loath in unwraping the information about their beginnings of income due to fear from revenue enhancement implementing bureaus.
If the respondent is non present at place, the interviewer has to see the site once more. [ 10 ]
Attitude of respondent based on his manner besides affects the consequences.
A type of interview that can be conducted through telephone or nomadic phone from a sample holding telephone or cell phone e.g. in USA it is the most popular interviewing method as 96 % of places have telephone service. [ 6 ]
In this method, the interviewee of the sample are called for interview, whose Numberss are normally taken from telephone directory or obtained through random figure dialing, who is told about the intent of interview and its importance, but the effectivity depends upon the presence of the family caput and his manner, as a individual puting for dinner will non be in the manner of drawn-out treatments of interview and therefore the consequences will be affected.
Peoples can be contacted even much faster than personal interview, as the interviewer has non to travel to interviewees ‘ site once more and once more which may be distant and clip consuming.
The replies can be more complete than mail studies, as unfastened ended inquiries are asked. [ 6 ]
The respondent may non be present at place when called for interview.
Merchandises ca n’t be shown on phone. [ 6 ]
Cost is high as it takes clip to finish the study.
May present prejudice from either the interviewer or the interviewee.
The respondent does non hold a opportunity to look at the questionnaire – hard to reply multiple pick type inquiries, as all picks ca n’t be seen at the same clip.
The respondent while executing some other work e.g. making office work or dinner will non be in manner to take longer treatment on inquiries – attitude towards the interview may non be good. [ 5 ]
Measure 04: Make Your Questionnaire – What Will You Ask [ 2 ] [ 6 ]
Planing the questionnaire is one of the most of import and critical phases in study, as the consequences are wholly dependent on the type, manner, & A ; format of inquiries you ask.
The mode in which a inquiry is asked can greatly impact the consequences of the study.
Surveies can be classified by the content of the study i.e. what you need to cognize e.g.
Opinions & A ; attitudes of people e.g. pre-election study, or
Factual features or behaviours e.g. people ‘s wellness issues or
Whatever the intent of your study may be, following guidelines may be followed:
Start with an debut or welcome message & A ; seek to promote people to reply & amp ; finish your questionnaire.
Ask clear-cut, and unambiguous inquiries e.g. usage KISS ( Keep It Simple & A ; Short ) i.e. inquire yourself what information will come through this inquiry & A ; whether it will be utile, if it is so include it, otherwise discard it.
Questions may be short/brief or long – but maintain short and easy to reply inquiries at the beginning.
Decide your manner of informations aggregation i.e. Survey Methodology & A ; so make your questionnaire consequently.
Decide your inquiry types which may be:
Close Ended, such as
Multiple Choice inquiries e.g.
Q: What Source Do you utilize for News?
Television News Channels
News on the Web/Internet
Numeric End-Up inquiries e.g.
Q: How many hours you are on-line ________ .
Rating Scale Questions e.g.
Q: How would you rate our learning method?
Agreement Scales e.g.
How much do you hold with each of the undermentioned statements?
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
Presentation is of import for pupils.
Students should avoid indulgence in political relations.
Yes/No Questions e.g.
Q: C++ is a powerful programming linguistic communication. ( Yes /No ) .
Open Ended e.g.
Q: How the learning capableness of the pupil can be improved?
Other things such as order of inquiries, their visual aspect & A ; physical size & A ; format – must besides be considered.
After creative activity – questionnaire should be protested ; nevertheless it is a large issue – so we consider it as a Measure in study procedure.
Measure 05: Pretest Your Questionnaire – Test What You Are Traveling to Ask
Pre-testing is a critical procedure to cognize about the jobs in the questionnaire, and should non be omitted as it is cardinal to be aftering a good & amp ; error-free questionnaire. [ 2 ]
We test a questionnaire with a little figure of interviewee which helps in unrevealing unforeseen jobs with inquiry give voicing & A ; instructions to jump inquiries & A ; to see whether answering understands our inquiries and give utile replies. [ 6 ]
Note that pretests should be conducted consistently – we must besides affect experts who can nail our errors. If we have different type of respondents, trial it with every type. If we have several linguistic communications we have to prove it in each linguistic communication. [ 11 ]
Advantages of Pre-testing:
As mentioned, it is critical procedure in finding questionnaire jobs – it has some more plus points:
We come to cognize the type of response that we may finally acquire from the respondent.
Unnecessary and inappropriate inquiries can be identified.
Description to some construct may necessitate to alter.
We can happen out ways in which greater cooperation of the respondents may be achieved. [ 11 ]
Measure 06: Behavior Interview/Questionnaire – Ask Questions
Now is the procedure of acquiring inquiries answered. For this intent the selected study methodological analysis on the footing of which questionnaire was designed, is followed, and informations is collected, until the coveted sample size is achieved.
Measure 07: Analyze the Data – Produce Reports
When sufficient sample size of responses, is achieved so the informations collected is analyzed through assorted statistical and mathematical manner, and the footing of this analysis, concluding study about the study is produced.
Some Issues in Survey Procedure:
Who Works On Surveys? Or Who Conducts Surveys? [ 6 ]
The Survey Worker is the interviewer who calls on the telephone, appears at doors, stops people at the promenade or store, or sends mail to people. Note that for this intent the individual does non necessitate any experience but some organisations train their workers particularly for studies conducted through telephone. E.g. in “ Benazir Income Support Program ‘s Ghar Ghar Survey ” , most of the workers are matriculate or FA qualified, & A ; they are given some initial preparation and make full out the questionnaire through face-to-face interview by sing every house in the community.
In-house employees besides have importance in this regard who works on about every stage of study procedure.
In some organisations studies are conducted under the supervising of experts who normally have experience of many old ages, or have grades in sociology, psychological science.
Confidentiality, Integrity and Quality of Questionnaire [ 2 ]
The information concerned with the privateness of the respondent provided by him must be kept confidential, for which following things must be kept in head:
Using merely figure codifications to associate the respondent to a questionnaire and hive awaying the name-to-code linkage information individually organize the questionnaire.
Name, Address and contact figure of the study respondents must non be exposed to clients as good outside the organisation.
Personal information should be omitted from computing machine files used for analysis.
Destroying questionnaire and other placing information.
Statistical tabular matters should be presented wide plenty so that respondents ca n’t be singled out.
Integrity can be ensured by sing whether inquiries asked are just to inquire or non.
Quality is mostly determined by intent and the manner a study is conducted.
Applications/Uses of Survey: [ 2 ] [ 12 ]
Surveies have a broad scope of applications, a few are discussed below:
Television webs like Geo News, AAJ News normally conduct study polls to cognize about public sentiments about a specific state of affairs or political issue or to cognize how many people are watching their plans and what they want to see.
Different Web Sites and Magazines can better their services through studies from their consumers.
Different Non-Government Organizations ( NGOs ) conduct assorted studies to cognize about the daily life position of in assorted communities of the universe.
Government bureaus perform studies for assorted intents e.g. “ Benazir Income Support Program – Ghar Ghar Survey ” is meant to cognize the fiscal position of their public, so that to give alleviation to meriting 1s and to use revenue enhancements to those on which revenue enhancement is applicable.
Surveies are conducted by research workers every bit good as pupils in assorted Fieldss of survey such as Sociology, Health Sciences, Political Science, Psychology, Economy and Economics etc.
Through studies we can happen out how people interact with engineering e.g. pupils under 12 & A ; under how use Web Technology.